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  1. Modeling directed graphs with differentiable representations is a fundamental requirement for performing machine learning on graph-structured data. Geometric embedding models (e.g. hyperbolic, cone, and box embeddings) excel at this task, exhibiting useful inductive biases for directed graphs. However, modeling directed graphs that both contain cycles and some element of transitivity, two properties common in real-world settings, is challenging. Box embeddings, which can be thought of as representing the graph as an intersection over some learned super-graphs, have a natural inductive bias toward modeling transitivity, but (as we prove) cannot model cycles. To this end, we propose binary code box embeddings, where a learned binary code selects a subset of graphs for intersection. We explore several variants, including global binary codes (amounting to a union over intersections) and per-vertex binary codes (allowing greater flexibility) as well as methods of regularization. Theoretical and empirical results show that the proposed models not only preserve a useful inductive bias of transitivity but also have sufficient representational capacity to model arbitrary graphs, including graphs with cycles.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. We study the $\ell_p$ regression problem, which requires finding $\mathbf{x}\in\mathbb R^{d}$ that minimizes $\|\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x}-\mathbf{b}\|_p$ for a matrix $\mathbf{A}\in\mathbb R^{n \times d}$ and response vector $\mathbf{b}\in\mathbb R^{n}$. There has been recent interest in developing subsampling methods for this problem that can outperform standard techniques when $n$ is very large. However, all known subsampling approaches have run time that depends exponentially on $p$, typically, $d^{\mathcal{O}(p)}$, which can be prohibitively expensive. We improve on this work by showing that for a large class of common \emph{structured matrices}, such as combinations of low-rank matrices, sparse matrices, and Vandermonde matrices, there are subsampling based methods for $\ell_p$ regression that depend polynomially on $p$. For example, we give an algorithm for $\ell_p$ regression on Vandermonde matrices that runs in time $\mathcal{O}(n\log^3 n+(dp^2)^{0.5+\omega}\cdot\text{polylog}\,n)$, where $\omega$ is the exponent of matrix multiplication. The polynomial dependence on $p$ crucially allows our algorithms to extend naturally to efficient algorithms for $\ell_\infty$ regression, via approximation of $\ell_\infty$ by $\ell_{\mathcal{O}(\log n)}$. Of practical interest, we also develop a new subsampling algorithm for $\ell_p$ regression for arbitrary matrices, which is simpler than previous approaches for $p \ge 4$.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  4. We study algorithms for approximating pairwise similarity matrices that arise in natural language processing. Generally, computing a similarity matrix for $n$ data points requires $\Omega(n^2)$ similarity computations. This quadratic scaling is a significant bottleneck, especially when similarities are computed via expensive functions, e.g., via transformer models. Approximation methods reduce this quadratic complexity, often by using a small subset of exactly computed similarities to approximate the remainder of the complete pairwise similarity matrix. Significant work focuses on the efficient approximation of positive semidefinite (PSD) similarity matrices, which arise e.g., in kernel methods. However, much less is understood about indefinite (non-PSD) similarity matrices, which often arise in NLP. Motivated by the observation that many of these matrices are still somewhat close to PSD, we introduce a generalization of the popular \emph{Nystrom method} to the indefinite setting. Our algorithm can be applied to any similarity matrix and runs in sublinear time in the size of the matrix, producing a rank-$s$ approximation with just $O(ns)$ similarity computations. We show that our method, along with a simple variant of CUR decomposition, performs very well in approximating a variety of similarity matrices arising in NLP tasks. We demonstrate high accuracy of the approximated similarity matrices inmore »tasks of document classification, sentence similarity, and cross-document coreference.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2023
  5. We give relative error coresets for training linear classifiers with a broad class of loss functions, including the logistic loss and hinge loss. Our construction achieves $(1\pm \epsilon)$ relative error with $\tilde O(d \cdot \mu_y(X)^2/\epsilon^2)$ points, where $\mu_y(X)$ is a natural complexity measure of the data matrix $X \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times d}$ and label vector $y \in \{-1,1\}^n$, introduced in Munteanu et al. 2018. Our result is based on subsampling data points with probabilities proportional to their \textit{$\ell_1$ Lewis weights}. It significantly improves on existing theoretical bounds and performs well in practice, outperforming uniform subsampling along with other importance sampling methods. Our sampling distribution does not depend on the labels, so can be used for active learning. It also does not depend on the specific loss function, so a single coreset can be used in multiple training scenarios.
  6. We study fast algorithms for computing fundamental properties of a positive semidefinite kernel matrix K∈ R^{n*n} corresponding to n points x1,…,xn∈R^d. In particular, we consider estimating the sum of kernel matrix entries, along with its top eigenvalue and eigenvector. We show that the sum of matrix entries can be estimated to 1+ϵ relative error in time sublinear in n and linear in d for many popular kernels, including the Gaussian, exponential, and rational quadratic kernels. For these kernels, we also show that the top eigenvalue (and an approximate eigenvector) can be approximated to 1+ϵ relative error in time subquadratic in n and linear in d. Our algorithms represent significant advances in the best known runtimes for these problems. They leverage the positive definiteness of the kernel matrix, along with a recent line of work on efficient kernel density estimation.