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  1. Abstract Hafnia (HfO 2 ) is a promising material for emerging chip applications due to its high- κ dielectric behavior, suitability for negative capacitance heterostructures, scalable ferroelectricity, and silicon compatibility. The lattice dynamics along with phononic properties such as thermal conductivity, contraction, and heat capacity are under-explored, primarily due to the absence of high quality single crystals. Herein, we report the vibrational properties of a series of HfO 2 crystals stabilized with yttrium (chemical formula HfO 2 :  x Y, where x  = 20, 12, 11, 8, and 0%) and compare our findings with a symmetry analysis and lattice dynamics calculations. We untangle the effects of Y by testing our calculations against the measured Raman and infrared spectra of the cubic, antipolar orthorhombic, and monoclinic phases and then proceed to reveal the signature modes of polar orthorhombic hafnia. This work provides a spectroscopic fingerprint for several different phases of HfO 2 and paves the way for an analysis of mode contributions to high- κ dielectric and ferroelectric properties for chip technologies.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We combine infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies to explore the properties of the heavy transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-HfS 2 . We employ the LO–TO splitting of the E u vibrational mode along with a reevaluation of mode mass, unit cell volume, and dielectric constant to reveal the Born effective charge. We find $${Z}_{{\rm{B}}}^{* }$$ Z B *  = 5.3 e , in excellent agreement with complementary first-principles calculations. In addition to resolving the controversy over the nature of chemical bonding in this system, we decompose Born charge into polarizability and local charge. We find α  = 5.07 Å 3 and Z *  = 5.2 e , respectively. Polar displacement-induced charge transfer from sulfur p to hafnium d is responsible for the enhanced Born charge compared to the nominal 4+ in hafnium. 1T-HfS 2 is thus an ionic crystal with strong and dynamic covalent effects. Taken together, our work places the vibrational properties of 1T-HfS 2 on a firm foundation and opens the door to understanding the properties of tubes and sheets.