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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. The exceptionally π-basic metal fragments {MoTp(NO)(DMAP)} and {WTp(NO)(PMe3)} (Tp = tris(pyrazolyl)borate; DMAP = 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine) form thermally stable η2-coordinated complexes with a variety of electron-deficient arenes. The tolerance of substituted arenes with fluorine-containing electron withdrawing groups (EWG; −F, −CF3, −SF5) is examined for both the molybdenum and tungsten systems. When the EWG contains a π bond (nitriles, aldehydes, ketones, ester), η2 coordination occurs predominantly on the nonaromatic functional group. However, complexation of the tungsten complex with trimethyl orthobenzoate (PhC(OMe)3) followed by hydrolysis allows access to an η2-coordinated arene with an ester substituent. In general, the tungsten system tolerates sulfur-based withdrawing groupsmore »well (e.g., PhSO2Ph, MeSO2Ph), and the integration of multiple electron-withdrawing groups on a benzene ring further enhances the π-back-bonding interaction between the metal and aromatic ligand. While the molybdenum system did not form stable η2-arene complexes with the sulfones or ortho esters, it was capable of forming rare examples of stable η2-coordinated arene complexes with a range of fluorinated benzenes (e.g., fluorobenzene, difluorobenzenes). In contrast to what has been observed for the tungsten system, these complexes formed without interference of C–H or C–F insertion.« less
  3. Taylor, John W. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Mycoviruses are widespread and purportedly common throughout the fungal kingdom, although most are known from hosts in the two most recently diverged phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, together called Dikarya. To augment our knowledge of mycovirus prevalence and diversity in underexplored fungi, we conducted a large-scale survey of fungi in the earlier-diverging lineages, using both culture-based and transcriptome-mining approaches to search for RNA viruses. In total, 21.6% of 333 isolates were positive for RNA mycoviruses. This is a greater proportion than expected based on previous taxonomically broad mycovirus surveys and is suggestive of a strong phylogenetic component to mycoviral infection.more »Our newly found viral sequences are diverse, composed of double-stranded RNA, positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), and negative-sense ssRNA genomes and include novel lineages lacking representation in the public databases. These identified viruses could be classified into 2 orders, 5 families, and 5 genera; however, half of the viruses remain taxonomically unassigned. Further, we identified a lineage of virus-like sequences in the genomes of members of Phycomycetaceae and Mortierellales that appear to be novel genes derived from integration of a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. The two screening methods largely agreed in their detection of viruses; thus, we suggest that the culture-based assay is a cost-effective means to quickly assess whether a laboratory culture is virally infected. This study used culture collections and publicly available transcriptomes to demonstrate that mycoviruses are abundant in laboratory cultures of early-diverging fungal lineages. The function and diversity of mycoviruses found here will help guide future studies into mycovirus origins and ecological functions. IMPORTANCE Viruses are key drivers of evolution and ecosystem function and are increasingly recognized as symbionts of fungi. Fungi in early-diverging lineages are widespread, ecologically important, and comprise the majority of the phylogenetic diversity of the kingdom. Viruses infecting early-diverging lineages of fungi have been almost entirely unstudied. In this study, we screened fungi for viruses by two alternative approaches: a classic culture-based method and by transcriptome-mining. The results of our large-scale survey demonstrate that early-diverging lineages have higher infection rates than have been previously reported in other fungal taxa and that laboratory strains worldwide are host to infections, the implications of which are unknown. The function and diversity of mycoviruses found in these basal fungal lineages will help guide future studies into mycovirus origins and their evolutionary ramifications and ecological impacts.« less
  4. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. Abstract During LHC Run 2 (2015–2018) the ATLAS Level-1 topological trigger allowed efficient data-taking by the ATLAS experiment at luminosities up to 2.1 $$\times $$ × 10 $$^{34}$$ 34  cm $$^{-2}$$ - 2 s $$^{-1}$$ - 1 , which exceeds the design value by a factor of two. The system was installed in 2016 and operated in 2017 and 2018. It uses Field Programmable Gate Array processors to select interesting events by placing kinematic and angular requirements on electromagnetic clusters, jets, $$\tau $$ τ -leptons, muons and the missing transverse energy. It allowed to significantly improve the background event rejection andmore »signal event acceptance, in particular for Higgs and B -physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  7. A bstract The fragmentation properties of jets containing b -hadrons are studied using charged B mesons in 139 fb − 1 of pp collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC during the period from 2015 to 2018. The B mesons are reconstructed using the decay of B ± into J/ψK ± , with the J/ψ decaying into a pair of muons. Jets are reconstructed using the anti- k t algorithm with radius parameter R = 0 . 4. The measurement determines the longitudinal and transverse momentum profiles of the reconstructedmore »B hadrons with respect to the axes of the jets to which they are geometrically associated. These distributions are measured in intervals of the jet transverse momentum, ranging from 50 GeV to above 100 GeV. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared with several Monte Carlo predictions using different parton shower and hadronisation models. The results for the longitudinal and transverse profiles provide useful inputs to improve the description of heavy-flavour fragmentation in jets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  8. Abstract Several improvements to the ATLAS triggers used to identify jets containing b -hadrons ( b -jets) were implemented for data-taking during Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider from 2016 to 2018. These changes include reconfiguring the b -jet trigger software to improve primary-vertex finding and allow more stable running in conditions with high pile-up, and the implementation of the functionality needed to run sophisticated taggers used by the offline reconstruction in an online environment. These improvements yielded an order of magnitude better light-flavour jet rejection for the same b -jet identification efficiency compared to the performance in Run 1 (2011–2012).more »The efficiency to identify b -jets in the trigger, and the conditional efficiency for b -jets that satisfy offline b -tagging requirements to pass the trigger are also measured. Correction factors are derived to calibrate the b -tagging efficiency in simulation to match that observed in data. The associated systematic uncertainties are substantially smaller than in previous measurements. In addition, b -jet triggers were operated for the first time during heavy-ion data-taking, using dedicated triggers that were developed to identify semileptonic b -hadron decays by selecting events with geometrically overlapping muons and jets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  9. Abstract A search for chargino–neutralino pair production in three-lepton final states with missing transverse momentum is presented. The study is based on a dataset of $$\sqrt{s} = 13$$ s = 13  TeV pp collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139  $$\hbox {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . No significant excess relative to the Standard Model predictions is found in data. The results are interpreted in simplified models of supersymmetry, and statistically combined with results from a previous ATLAS search for compressed spectra in two-lepton final states. Various scenarios for the production andmore »decay of charginos ( $${\tilde{\chi }}^\pm _1$$ χ ~ 1 ± ) and neutralinos ( $${\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 2 0 ) are considered. For pure higgsino $${\tilde{\chi }}^\pm _1{\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 1 ± χ ~ 2 0 pair-production scenarios, exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are set on $${\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 2 0 masses up to 210 GeV. Limits are also set for pure wino $${\tilde{\chi }}^\pm _1{\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 1 ± χ ~ 2 0 pair production, on $${\tilde{\chi }}^0_2$$ χ ~ 2 0 masses up to 640 GeV for decays via on-shell W and Z bosons, up to 300 GeV for decays via off-shell W and Z bosons, and up to 190 GeV for decays via W and Standard Model Higgs bosons.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022