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  1. We describe and illustrate eight new species of chewing lice in the genus Philopterus Nitzsch, 1818, parasitic on hosts in the bird families Cardinalidae, Chloropseidae, Hirundinidae, Icteridae, Motacillidae, Paridae, and Vangidae from China, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA. They are: Philopterus coriaceus sp. nov. from Molothrus oryzivorus oryzivorus (Gmelin, 1788); P. hebes sp. nov. from Chloropsis aurifrons inornata Kloss, 1918 and C. cochinchinensis kinneari Hall & Deignan, 1956; P. micropunctatus sp. nov. from Anthus hodgsoni Richmond, 1907; P. afropari sp. nov. from Melaniparus cinerascens cinerascens (Vieillot, 1818); P. pseudhirundo sp. nov. from Pseudhirundo griseopyga Sundevall, 1850; P. sinensis sp. nov. from Hemipus picatus capitalis (Horsfield, 1840); P. stansburyensis sp. nov. from Pheucticus melanocephalus melanocephalus (Swainson, 1827); and P. trepostephanus sp. nov. from Tephrodornis virgatus fretensis Robinson & Kloss, 1920 and T. v. mekongensis Meyer de Schauensee, 1946. Philopterus hebes sp. nov. constitutes the first record of the genus Philopterus from the Chloropseidae. We also provide some notes on the morphology and status of Cypseloecus Conci, 1941.
  2. Wilkerson, Richard (Ed.)
    Abstract The Philopterus Complex includes several lineages of lice that occur on birds. The complex includes the genera Philopterus (Nitzsch, 1818; Psocodea: Philopteridae), Philopteroides (Mey, 2004; Psocodea: Philopteridae), and many other lineages that have sometimes been regarded as separate genera. Only a few studies have investigated the phylogeny of this complex, all of which are based on morphological data. Here we evaluate the utility of nuclear and mitochondrial loci for recovering the phylogeny within this group. We obtained phylogenetic trees from 39 samples of the Philopterus Complex (Psocodea: Philopteridae), using sequences of two nuclear (hyp and TMEDE6) and one mitochondrial (COI) marker. We evaluated trees derived from these genes individually as well as from concatenated sequences. All trees show 20 clearly demarcated taxa (i.e., putative species) divided into five well-supported clades. Percent sequence divergence between putative species (~5–30%) for the COI gene tended to be much higher than those for the nuclear genes (~1–15%), as expected. In cases where species are described, the lineages identified based on molecular divergence correspond to morphologically defined species. In some cases, species that are host generalists exhibit additional underlying genetic variation and such cases need to be explored by further future taxonomic revisions ofmore »the Philopterus Complex.« less