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  1. Abstract

    Although many substorm‐related observations have been made, we still have limited insight into propagation of the plasma and field perturbations in Pi2 frequencies (∼7–25 mHz) in association with substorm aurora, particularly from the auroral source region in the inner magnetosphere to the ground. In this study, we present conjugate observations of a substorm brightening aurora using an all‐sky camera and an inner‐magnetospheric satellite Arase atL ∼ 5. A camera at Gakona (62.39°N, 214.78°E), Alaska, observed a substorm auroral brightening on 28 December 2018, and the footprint of the satellite was located just equatorward of the aurora. Around the timing of the auroral brightening, the satellite observed a series of quasi‐periodic variations in the electric and magnetic fields and in the energy flux of electrons and ions. We demonstrate that the diamagnetic variations of thermal pressure and medium‐energy ion energy flux in the inner magnetosphere show approximately one‐to‐one correspondence with the oscillations in luminosity of the substorm brightening aurora and high‐latitudinal Pi2 pulsations on the ground. We also found their anti‐correlation with low‐energy electrons. Cavity‐type Pi2 pulsations were observed at mid‐ and low‐latitudinal stations. Based on these observations, we suggest that a wave phenomenon in the substorm auroral source region, like ballooning type instability, play an important role in the development of substorm and related auroral brightening and high‐latitude Pi2, and that the variation of the auroral luminosity was directly driven by keV electrons which were modulated by Alfven waves in the inner magnetosphere.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Differential carrier lifetime measurements were performed on c-plane InGaN/GaN single quantum well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of different QW indium compositions as well as with and without doped barriers. Mg-doped p-type and Si-doped n-type barriers close to the QW were used to reduce the net internal electric field in the QW, thereby improving the electron–hole wavefunction overlap on the LEDs. LEDs with doped barriers show short lifetimes and low carrier densities in the active region compared to the reference LEDs. The recombination coefficients in the ABC model were estimated based on the carrier lifetime and quantum efficiency measurements. The improvement in the radiative coefficients in the LEDs with doped barriers coupled with the blueshift of the emission wavelengths indeed indicates an enhancement in wavefunction overlap and a reduction of quantum confined Stark effect as a result of the reduced internal electric field. However, doped barriers also introduce non-radiative recombination centers and thereby increase the Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) coefficient, although the increment is less for LEDs with high indium composition QWs. As a result, at high indium composition (22%), LEDs with doped barriers outperform the reference LEDs even though the trend is reversed for LEDs with lower indium composition (13.5%). Despite the trade-off of higher SRH coefficients, doped barriers are shown to be effective in reducing the internal electric field and increasing the recombination coefficients.

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  3. We theoretically and experimentally investigate Tamm plasmon (TP) modes in a metal/semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) interface. A thin Ag (silver) layer with a thickness (55 nm from simulation) that is optimized to guarantee a low reflectivity at the resonance was deposited on nanoporous GaN DBRs fabricated using electrochemical (EC) etching on freestanding semipolar (2021¯<#comment/>) GaN substrates. The reflectivity spectra of the DBRs are compared before and after the Ag deposition and with that of a blanket Ag layer deposited on GaN. The experimental results indicate the presence of a TP mode at ∼ 454 nm on the structure after the Ag deposition, which is also supported by theoretical calculations using a transfer-matrix algorithm. The results from mode dispersion with energy-momentum reflectance spectroscopy measurements also support the presence of a TP mode at the metal-nanoporous GaN DBR interface. An active medium can also be accommodated within the mode for optoelectronics and photonics. Moreover, the simulation results predict a sensitivity of the TP mode wavelength to the ambient (∼ 4-7 nm shift when changing the ambient within the pores from air withn = 1 to isopropanoln = 1.3), suggesting an application of the nanoporous GaN-based TP structure for optical sensing.

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  4. Abstract

    Resonant interactions of energetic electrons with electromagnetic whistler‐mode waves (whistlers) contribute significantly to the dynamics of electron fluxes in Earth's outer radiation belt. At low geomagnetic latitudes, these waves are very effective in pitch angle scattering and precipitation into the ionosphere of low equatorial pitch angle, tens of keV electrons and acceleration of high equatorial pitch angle electrons to relativistic energies. Relativistic (hundreds of keV), electrons may also be precipitated by resonant interaction with whistlers, but this requires waves propagating quasi‐parallel without significant intensity decrease to high latitudes where they can resonate with higher energy low equatorial pitch angle electrons than at the equator. Wave propagation away from the equatorial source region in a non‐uniform magnetic field leads to ray divergence from the originally field‐aligned direction and efficient wave damping by Landau resonance with suprathermal electrons, reducing the wave ability to scatter electrons at high latitudes. However, wave propagation can become ducted along field‐aligned density peaks (ducts), preventing ray divergence and wave damping. Such ducting may therefore result in significant relativistic electron precipitation. We present evidence that ducted whistlers efficiently precipitate relativistic electrons. We employ simultaneous near‐equatorial and ground‐based measurements of whistlers and low‐altitude electron precipitation measurements by ELFIN CubeSat. We show that ducted waves (appearing on the ground) efficiently scatter relativistic electrons into the loss cone, contrary to non‐ducted waves (absent on the ground) precipitating onlykeV electrons. Our results indicate that ducted whistlers may be quite significant for relativistic electron losses; they should be further studied statistically and possibly incorporated in radiation belt models.

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