Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.
The presence of middle ear fluid is a key diagnostic marker for two of the most common pediatric ear diseases: acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. We present an accessible solution that uses speakers and microphones within existing smartphones to detect middle ear fluid by assessing eardrum mobility. We conducted a clinical study on 98 patient ears at a pediatric surgical center. Using leave-one-out cross-validation to estimate performance on unseen data, we obtained an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.898 for the smartphone-based machine learning algorithm. In comparison, commercial acoustic reflectometry, which requires custom hardware, achieved an AUC of 0.776. Furthermore, we achieved 85% sensitivity and 82% specificity, comparable to published performance measures for tympanometry and pneumatic otoscopy. Similar results were obtained when testing across multiple smartphone platforms. Parents of pediatric patients ( n = 25 ears) demonstrated similar performance to trained clinicians when using the smartphone-based system. These results demonstrate the potential for a smartphone to be a low-barrier and effective screening tool for detecting the presence of middle ear fluid.
Early detection and rapid intervention can prevent death from opioid overdose. At high doses, opioids (particularly fentanyl) can cause rapid cessation of breathing (apnea), hypoxemic/hypercarbic respiratory failure, and death, the physiologic sequence by which people commonly succumb from unintentional opioid overdose. We present algorithms that run on smartphones and unobtrusively detect opioid overdose events and their precursors. Our proof-of- concept contactless system converts the phone into a short-range active sonar using frequency shifts to identify respiratory depression, apnea, and gross motor movements associated with acute opioid toxicity. We develop algorithms and perform testing in two environments: (i) an approved supervised injection facility (SIF), where people self-inject illicit opioids, and (ii) the operating room (OR), where we simulate rapid, opioid-induced overdose events using routine induction of general anesthesia. In the SIF ( n = 209), our system identified postinjection, opioid-induced central apnea with 96% sensitivity and 98% specificity and identified respiratory depression with 87% sensitivity and 89% specificity. These two key events commonly precede fatal opioid overdose. In the OR, our algorithm identified 19 of 20 simulated overdose events. Given the reliable reversibility of acute opioid toxicity, smartphone-enabled overdose detection coupled with the ability to alert naloxone-equipped friends and family ormore »