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  4. The early detection of tumors and precancerous conditions is vital for cancer diagnosis. Advances in fluorescence microscopic techniques and materials synthesis processes have revolutionized biomarker detection and image-guided cancer surveillance. In particular, novel materials-based diagnostic tools and innovative therapies have facilitated a precise understanding of biological processes at the molecular level. This critical review presents an overview of bioimaging probes, including functionalized chromophoric systems, non-functionalized chromophoric systems, and nanoscale biosensors. Technical challenges and future directions related to these approaches are considered. 
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  6. Biocompatible and biodegradable materials have been used for fabricating polymeric microneedles to deliver therapeutic drug molecules through the skin. Microneedles have advantages over other drug delivery methods, such as low manufacturing cost, controlled drug release, and the reduction or absence of pain. The study examined the delivery of amphotericin B, an antifungal agent, using microneedles that were fabricated using a micromolding technique. The microneedle matrix was made from GantrezTM AN-119 BF, a benzene-free methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymer. The GantrezTM AN-119 BF was mixed with water; after water evaporation, the polymer exhibited sufficient strength for microneedle fabrication. Molds cured at room temperature remained sharp and straight. SEM images showed straight and sharp needle tips; a confocal microscope was used to determine the height and tip diameter for the microneedles. Nanoindentation was used to obtain the hardness and Young’s modulus values of the polymer. Load–displacement testing was used to assess the failure force of the needles under compressive loading. These two mechanical tests confirmed the mechanical properties of the needles. In vitro studies validated the presence of amphotericin B in the needles and the antifungal properties of the needles. Amphotericin B GantrezTM microneedles fabricated in this study showed appropriate characteristics for clinical translation in terms of mechanical properties, sharpness, and antifungal properties. 
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