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    We report the discovery of TOI-2119b, a transiting brown dwarf (BD) that orbits and is completely eclipsed by an active M-dwarf star. Using light-curve data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite mission and follow-up high-resolution Doppler spectroscopic observations, we find the BD has a radius of Rb = 1.08 ± 0.03RJ, a mass of Mb = 64.4 ± 2.3MJ, an orbital period of P = 7.200865 ± 0.00002 d, and an eccentricity of e = 0.337 ± 0.002. The host star has a mass of M⋆ = 0.53 ± 0.02M⊙, a radius of R⋆ = 0.50 ± 0.01R⊙, an effective temperature of Teff = 3621 ± 48K, and a metallicity of $\rm [Fe/H]=+0.06\pm 0.08$. TOI-2119b joins an emerging population of transiting BDs around M-dwarf host stars, with TOI-2119 being the ninth such system. These M-dwarf–brown dwarf systems typically occupy mass ratios near q = Mb/M⋆ ≈ 0.1−0.2, which separates them from the typical mass ratios for systems with transiting substellar objects and giant exoplanets that orbit more massive stars. The nature of the secondary eclipse of the BD by the star enables us to estimate the effective temperature of the substellar object to be 2030 ± 84K, which is consistent with predictions by substellar evolutionary models.

  2. Abstract We present the confirmation and characterization of three hot Jupiters, TOI-1181b, TOI-1516b, and TOI-2046b, discovered by the TESS space mission. The reported hot Jupiters have orbital periods between 1.4 and 2.05 days. The masses of the three planets are 1.18 ± 0.14 MJ, 3.16 ± 0.12 MJ, and 2.30 ±0.28 MJ, for TOI-1181b, TOI-1516b, and TOI-2046b, respectively. The stellar host of TOI-1181b is a G0IV star, whereas TOI-1516b and TOI-2046b orbit F main sequence host stars. The ages of the first two systems are in the range of 2-5 Gyrs. However, TOI-2046 is among the few youngest known planetary systems hosting a hot Jupiter, with an age estimate of 100-400 Myrs. The main instruments used for the radial velocity follow-up of these three planets are located at Ondřejov, Tautenburg and McDonald Observatory, and all three are mounted on 2-3 meter aperture telescopes, demonstrating that mid-aperture telescope networks can play a substantial role in the follow-up of gas giants discovered by TESS and in the future by PLATO.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We present the validation of a transiting low-density exoplanet orbiting the M2.5 dwarf TOI 620 discovered by the NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. We utilize photometric data from both TESS and ground-based follow-up observations to validate the ephemerides of the 5.09 day transiting signal and vet false-positive scenarios. High-contrast imaging data are used to resolve the stellar host and exclude stellar companions at separations ≳0.″2. We obtain follow-up spectroscopy and corresponding precise radial velocities (RVs) with multiple precision radial velocity (PRV) spectrographs to confirm the planetary nature of the transiting exoplanet. We calculate a 5σupper limit ofMP< 7.1MandρP< 0.74 g cm−3, and we identify a nontransiting 17.7 day candidate. We also find evidence for a substellar (1–20MJ) companion with a projected separation ≲20 au from a combined analysis of Gaia, adaptive optics imaging, and RVs. With the discovery of this outer companion, we carry out a detailed exploration of the possibilities that TOI 620 b might instead be a circum-secondary planet or a pair of eclipsing binary stars orbiting the host in a hierarchical triple system. We find, under scrutiny, that we can exclude both of these scenarios from the multiwavelength transit photometry, thus validating TOI 620more »b as a low-density exoplanet transiting the central star in this system. The low density of TOI 620 b makes it one of the most amenable exoplanets for atmospheric characterization, such as with the James Webb Space Telescope and Ariel, validated or confirmed by the TESS mission to date.

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  4. Abstract The James Webb Space Telescope will be able to probe the atmospheres and surface properties of hot, terrestrial planets via emission spectroscopy. We identify 18 potentially terrestrial planet candidates detected by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) that would make ideal targets for these observations. These planet candidates cover a broad range of planet radii ( R p ∼ 0.6–2.0 R ⊕ ) and orbit stars of various magnitudes ( K s = 5.78–10.78, V = 8.4–15.69) and effective temperatures ( T eff ∼ 3000–6000 K). We use ground-based observations collected through the TESS Follow-up Observing Program (TFOP) and two vetting tools— DAVE and TRICERATOPS —to assess the reliabilities of these candidates as planets. We validate 13 planets: TOI-206 b, TOI-500 b, TOI-544 b, TOI-833 b, TOI-1075 b, TOI-1411 b, TOI-1442 b, TOI-1693 b, TOI-1860 b, TOI-2260 b, TOI-2411 b, TOI-2427 b, and TOI-2445 b. Seven of these planets (TOI-206 b, TOI-500 b, TOI-1075 b, TOI-1442 b, TOI-2260 b, TOI-2411 b, and TOI-2445 b) are ultra-short-period planets. TOI-1860 is the youngest (133 ± 26 Myr) solar twin with a known planet to date. TOI-2260 is a young (321 ± 96 Myr) G dwarf that is among the most metal-richmore »([Fe/H] = 0.22 ± 0.06 dex) stars to host an ultra-short-period planet. With an estimated equilibrium temperature of ∼2600 K, TOI-2260 b is also the fourth hottest known planet with R p < 2 R ⊕ .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 28, 2023
  5. Abstract We report on photometric and spectroscopic observations and analysis of the 2019 superoutburst of TCP J21040470+4631129. This object showed a 9 mag superoutburst with early superhumps and ordinary superhumps, which are the features of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. Five rebrightenings were observed after the main superoutburst. The spectra during the post-superoutburst stage showed Balmer, He i, and possible sodium doublet features. The mass ratio is derived as 0.0880(9) from the period of the superhump. During the third and fifth rebrightenings, growing superhumps and superoutbursts were observed, which have never been detected during a rebrightening phase among WZ Sge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings. To induce a superoutburst during the brightening phase, the accretion disk needs to have expanded beyond the 3 : 1 resonance radius of the system again after the main superoutburst. These peculiar phenomena can be explained by the enhanced viscosity and large radius of the accretion disk suggested by the higher luminosity and the presence of late-stage superhumps during the post-superoutburst stage, plus by more mass supply from the cool mass reservoir and/or from the secondary because of the enhanced mass transfer than those of other WZ Sge-type dwarf novae.