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Creators/Authors contains: "Natarajan, Aravind"

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  1. Abstract

    Patients with COVID-19 shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, sometimes well after their respiratory infection has cleared. This may be significant for patient health, epidemiology, and diagnosis. However, methods to preserve stool, and to extract and quantify viral RNA are not standardized. We test the performance of three preservative approaches at yielding detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA: the OMNIgene-GUT kit, Zymo DNA/RNA shield kit, and the most commonly applied, storage without preservative. We test these in combination with three extraction kits: QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit, Zymo Quick-RNA Viral Kit, and MagMAX Viral/Pathogen Kit. We also test the utility of ddPCR and RT-qPCR for the reliable quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from stool. We identify that the Zymo DNA/RNA preservative and the QiaAMP extraction kit yield more detectable RNA than the others, using both ddPCR and RT-qPCR. Taken together, we recommend a comprehensive methodology for preservation, extraction and detection of RNA from SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in stool.

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  2. Abstract

    Glycosylation plays important roles in cellular function and endows protein therapeutics with beneficial properties. However, constructing biosynthetic pathways to study and engineer precise glycan structures on proteins remains a bottleneck. Here, we report a modular, versatile cell-free platform forglycosylationpathway assembly byrapidin vitromixing andexpression (GlycoPRIME). In GlycoPRIME, glycosylation pathways are assembled by mixing-and-matching cell-free synthesized glycosyltransferases that can elaborate a glucose primer installed onto protein targets by anN-glycosyltransferase. We demonstrate GlycoPRIME by constructing 37 putative protein glycosylation pathways, creating 23 unique glycan motifs, 18 of which have not yet been synthesized on proteins. We use selected pathways to synthesize a protein vaccine candidate with an α-galactose adjuvant motif in a one-pot cell-free system and human antibody constant regions with minimal sialic acid motifs in glycoengineeredEscherichia coli. We anticipate that these methods and pathways will facilitate glycoscience and make possible new glycoengineering applications.

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  3. Abstract

    The emerging discipline of bacterial glycoengineering has made it possible to produce designer glycans and glycoconjugates for use as vaccines and therapeutics. Unfortunately, cell-based production of homogeneous glycoproteins remains a significant challenge due to cell viability constraints and the inability to control glycosylation components at precise ratios in vivo. To address these challenges, we describe a novel cell-free glycoprotein synthesis (CFGpS) technology that seamlessly integrates protein biosynthesis with asparagine-linked protein glycosylation. This technology leverages a glyco-optimizedEscherichia colistrain to source cell extracts that are selectively enriched with glycosylation components, including oligosaccharyltransferases (OSTs) and lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLOs). The resulting extracts enable a one-pot reaction scheme for efficient and site-specific glycosylation of target proteins. The CFGpS platform is highly modular, allowing the use of multiple distinct OSTs and structurally diverse LLOs. As such, we anticipate CFGpS will facilitate fundamental understanding in glycoscience and make possible applications in on demand biomanufacturing of glycoproteins.

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