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  1. Aims. We inspect the four microlensing events KMT-2021-BLG-1968, KMT-2021-BLG-2010, KMT-2022-BLG-0371, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013, for which the light curves exhibit partially covered short-term central anomalies. We conduct detailed analyses of the events with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomalies. Methods. We tested various models that can explain the anomalies of the individual events, including the binary-lens (2L1S) and binary-source (1L2S) interpretations. Under the 2L1S interpretation, we thoroughly inspected the parameter space to determine the existence of degenerate solutions, and if they existed, we tested whether the degeneracy could be resolved. Results. We find that the anomalies in KMT-2021-BLG-2010 and KMT-2022-BLG-1013 are uniquely defined by planetary-lens interpretations with planet-to-host mass ratios of q ~ 2.8 × 10 −3 and ~1.6 × 10 −3 , respectively. For KMT-2022-BLG-0371, a planetary solution with a mass ratio q ~ 4 × 10 −4 is strongly favored over the other three degenerate 2L1S solutions with different mass ratios based on the χ 2 and relative proper motion arguments, and a 1L2S solution is clearly ruled out. For KMT-2021-BLG-1968, on the other hand, we find that the anomaly can be explained either by a planetary or a binary-source interpretation, making it difficult to firmly identify the nature of the anomaly. From the Bayesian analyses of the identified planetary events, we estimate that the masses of the planet and host are ( M p / M J , M h / M ⊙ ) = (1.07 −0.68 +1.15 , 0.37 −0.23 +0.40 ), (0.26 −0.11 +0.13 , 0.63 −0.28 +0.32 ), and (0.31 −0.16 +0.46 , 0.18 −0.10 +0.28 ) for KMT-2021-BLG-2010L, KMT-2022-BLG-0371L, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013L, respectively. 
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    Astrometric positions of radio-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be determined with sub-milliarcsec accuracy using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). The usually small apparent proper motion of distant extragalactic targets allow us to realize the fundamental celestial reference frame with VLBI observations. However, long-term astrometric monitoring may reveal extreme changes in some AGN positions. Using new VLBI observations in 2018–2021, we show here that four extragalactic radio sources (3C 48, CTA 21, 1144+352, 1328+254) have a dramatic shift in their positions by 20–130 mas over two decades. For all four sources, the apparent positional shift is caused by their radio structure change.

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  3. Abstract

    Using data from the Complete Nearby (redshiftzhost< 0.02) sample of Type Ia Supernovae (CNIa0.02), we find a linear relation between two parameters derived from theBVcolor curves of Type Ia supernovae: thecolor stretchsBVand the rising color slopes0*(BV)after the peak, and this relation applies to the full range ofsBV. ThesBVparameter is known to be tightly correlated with the peak luminosity, especially forfast decliners(dim Type Ia supernovae), and the luminosity correlation withsBVis markedly better than with the classic light-curve width parameters such as Δm15(B). Thus, our new linear relation can be used to infer peak luminosity froms0*. UnlikesBV(or Δm15(B)), the measurement ofs0*(BV)does not rely on a well-determined time of light-curve peak or color maximum, making it less demanding on the light-curve coverage than past approaches.

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  4. Abstract

    We complete the publication of all microlensing planets (and “possible planets”) identified by the uniform approach of the KMT AnomalyFinder system in the 21 KMT subprime fields during the 2019 observing season, namely, KMT-2019-BLG-0298, KMT-2019-BLG-1216, KMT-2019-BLG-2783, OGLE-2019-BLG-0249, and OGLE-2019-BLG-0679 (planets), as well as OGLE-2019-BLG-0344 and KMT-2019-BLG-0304 (possible planets). The five planets have mean log mass ratio measurements of (−2.6, −3.6, −2.5, −2.2, −2.3), median mass estimates of (1.81, 0.094, 1.16, 7.12, 3.34)MJup, and median distance estimates of (6.7, 2.7, 5.9, 6.4, 5.6) kpc, respectively. The main scientific interest of these planets is that they complete the AnomalyFinder sample for 2019, which has a total of 25 planets that are likely to enter the statistical sample. We find statistical consistency with the previously published 33 planets from the 2018 AnomalyFinder analysis according to an ensemble of five tests. Of the 58 planets from 2018–2019, 23 were newly discovered by AnomalyFinder. Within statistical precision, half of the planets have caustic crossings, while half do not; an equal number of detected planets result from major- and minor-image light-curve perturbations; and an equal number come from KMT prime fields versus subprime fields.

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  5. Abstract We analyze the MOA-2020-BLG-208 gravitational microlensing event and present the discovery and characterization of a new planet, MOA-2020-BLG-208Lb, with an estimated sub-Saturn mass. With a mass ratio q = 3.17 − 0.26 + 0.28 × 10 − 4 , the planet lies near the peak of the mass-ratio function derived by the MOA collaboration and near the edge of expected sample sensitivity. For these estimates we provide results using two mass-law priors: one assuming that all stars have an equal planet-hosting probability, and the other assuming that planets are more likely to orbit around more massive stars. In the first scenario, we estimate that the lens system is likely to be a planet of mass m planet = 46 − 24 + 42 M ⊕ and a host star of mass M host = 0.43 − 0.23 + 0.39 M ⊙ , located at a distance D L = 7.49 − 1.13 + 0.99 kpc . For the second scenario, we estimate m planet = 69 − 34 + 37 M ⊕ , M host = 0.66 − 0.32 + 0.35 M ⊙ , and D L = 7.81 − 0.93 + 0.93 kpc . The planet has a projected separation as a fraction of the Einstein ring radius s = 1.3807 − 0.0018 + 0.0018 . As a cool sub-Saturn-mass planet, this planet adds to a growing collection of evidence for revised planetary formation models. 
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    Follow-up observations of high-magnification gravitational microlensing events can fully exploit their intrinsic sensitivity to detect extrasolar planets, especially those with small mass ratios. To make followup observations more uniform and efficient, we develop a system, HighMagFinder, to automatically alert possible ongoing high-magnification events based on the real-time data from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet). We started a new phase of follow-up observations with the help of HighMagFinder in 2021. Here we report the discovery of two planets in high-magnification microlensing events, KMT-2021-BLG-0171 and KMT-2021-BLG-1689, which were identified by the HighMagFinder. We find that both events suffer the ‘central-resonant’ caustic degeneracy. The planet-host mass-ratio is q ∼ 4.7 × 10−5 or q ∼ 2.2 × 10−5 for KMT-2021-BLG-0171, and q ∼ 2.5 × 10−4 or q ∼ 1.8 × 10−4 for KMT-2021-BLG-1689. Together with two other events, four cases that suffer such degeneracy have been discovered in the 2021 season alone, indicating that the degenerate solutions may have been missed in some previous studies. We also propose a quantitative factor to weight the probability of each solution from the phase space. The resonant interpretations for the two events are disfavoured under this consideration. This factor can be included in future statistical studies to weight degenerate solutions.

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  7. Abstract

    The CNIa0.02 project aims to collect a complete, nearby sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) light curves, and the SNe are volume-limited with host-galaxy redshiftszhost< 0.02. The main scientific goal is to infer the distributions of key properties (e.g., the luminosity function) of local SNe Ia in a complete and unbiased fashion in order to study SN explosion physics. We spectroscopically classify any SN candidate detected by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) that reaches a peak brightness <16.5 mag. Since ASAS-SN scans the full sky and does not target specific galaxies, our target selection is effectively unbiased by host-galaxy properties. We perform multiband photometric observations starting from the time of discovery. In the first data release (DR1), we present the optical light curves obtained for 247 SNe from our project (including 148 SNe in the complete sample), and we derive parameters such as the peak fluxes, Δm15, andsBV.

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