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  1. Rappe, Michael S. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT For the abundant marine Alphaproteobacterium Pelagibacter (SAR11), and other bacteria, phages are powerful forces of mortality. However, little is known about the most abundant Pelagiphages in nature, such as the widespread HTVC023P-type, which is currently represented by two cultured phages. Using viral metagenomic data sets and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we recovered 80 complete, undescribed Podoviridae genomes that form 10 phylogenomically distinct clades (herein, named Clades I to X) related to the HTVC023P-type. These expanded the HTVC023P-type pan-genome by 15-fold and revealed 41 previously unknown auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) in this viral lineage. Numerous instances of partner-AMGs (colocated and involved in related functions) were observed, including partners in nucleotide metabolism, DNA hypermodification, and Curli biogenesis. The Type VIII secretion system (T8SS) responsible for Curli biogenesis was identified in nine genomes and expanded the repertoire of T8SS proteins reported thus far in viruses. Additionally, the identified T8SS gene cluster contained an iron-dependent regulator (FecR), as well as a histidine kinase and adenylate cyclase that can be implicated in T8SS function but are not within T8SS operons in bacteria. While T8SS are lacking in known Pelagibacter , they contribute to aggregation and biofilm formation in other bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstructions of partner-AMGs indicate derivation from cellular lineages with a more recent transfer between viral families. For example, homologs of all T8SS genes are present in syntenic regions of distant Myoviridae Pelagiphages, and they appear to have alphaproteobacterial origins with a later transfer between viral families. The results point to an unprecedented multipartner-AMG transfer between marine Myoviridae and Podoviridae. Together with the expansion of known metabolic functions, our studies provide new prospects for understanding the ecology and evolution of marine phages and their hosts. IMPORTANCE One of the most abundant and diverse marine bacterial groups is Pelagibacter . Phages have roles in shaping Pelagibacter ecology; however, several Pelagiphage lineages are represented by only a few genomes. This paucity of data from even the most widespread lineages has imposed limits on the understanding of the diversity of Pelagiphages and their impacts on hosts. Here, we report 80 complete genomes, assembled directly from environmental data, which are from undescribed Pelagiphages and render new insights into the manipulation of host metabolism during infection. Notably, the viruses have functionally related partner genes that appear to be transferred between distant viruses, including a suite that encode a secretion system which both brings a new functional capability to the host and is abundant in phages across the ocean. Together, these functions have important implications for phage evolution and for how Pelagiphage infection influences host biology in manners extending beyond canonical viral lysis and mortality. 
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  2. Abstract. Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) contribute a disproportionatefraction of the global fish catch relative to their size and are especiallysusceptible to global environmental change. Here we present the evolution ofcommunities over 50 d in an in situ mesocosm 6 km offshore of Callao, Peru, andin the nearby unenclosed coastal Pacific Ocean. The communities weremonitored using multi-marker environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding and flowcytometry. DNA extracted from weekly water samples were subjected toamplicon sequencing for four genetic loci: (1) the V1–V2 region of the 16SrRNA gene for photosynthetic eukaryotes (via their chloroplasts) andbacteria; (2) the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene for exploration ofeukaryotes but targeting phytoplankton; (3) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) forexploration of eukaryotic taxa but targeting invertebrates; and (4) the 12SrRNA gene, targeting vertebrates. The multi-marker approach showed adivergence of communities (from microbes to fish) between the mesocosm andthe unenclosed ocean. Together with the environmental information, thegenetic data furthered our mechanistic understanding of the processes thatare shaping EBUS communities in a changing ocean. The unenclosed oceanexperienced significant variability over the course of the 50 d experiment,with temporal shifts in community composition, but remained dominated byorganisms that are characteristic of high-nutrient upwelling conditions(e.g., diatoms, copepods, anchovies). A large directional change was found inthe mesocosm community. The mesocosm community that developed wascharacteristic of upwelling regions when upwelling relaxes and watersstratify (e.g., dinoflagellates, nanoflagellates). The selection ofdinoflagellates under the salinity-driven experimentally stratifiedconditions in the mesocosm, as well as the warm conditions brought about bythe coastal El Niño, may be an indication of how EBUS will respond underthe global environmental changes (i.e., increases in surface temperature andfreshwater input, leading to increased stratification) forecast by the IPCC. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The marine picoeukaryote Bathycoccus prasinos has been considered a cosmopolitan alga, although recent studies indicate two ecotypes exist, Clade BI ( B. prasinos ) and Clade BII. Viruses that infect Bathycoccus Clade BI are known (BpVs), but not that infect BII. We isolated three dsDNA prasinoviruses from the Sargasso Sea against Clade BII isolate RCC716. The BII-Vs do not infect BI, and two (BII-V2 and BII-V3) have larger genomes (~210 kb) than BI-Viruses and BII-V1. BII-Vs share ~90% of their proteins, and between 65% to 83% of their proteins with sequenced BpVs. Phylogenomic reconstructions and PolB analyses establish close-relatedness of BII-V2 and BII-V3, yet BII-V2 has 10-fold higher infectivity and induces greater mortality on host isolate RCC716. BII-V1 is more distant, has a shorter latent period, and infects both available BII isolates, RCC716 and RCC715, while BII-V2 and BII-V3 do not exhibit productive infection of the latter in our experiments. Global metagenome analyses show Clade BI and BII algal relative abundances correlate positively with their respective viruses. The distributions delineate BI/BpVs as occupying lower temperature mesotrophic and coastal systems, whereas BII/BII-Vs occupy warmer temperature, higher salinity ecosystems. Accordingly, with molecular diagnostic support, we name Clade BII Bathycoccus calidus sp. nov. and propose that molecular diversity within this new species likely connects to the differentiated host-virus dynamics observed in our time course experiments. Overall, the tightly linked biogeography of Bathycoccus host and virus clades observed herein supports species-level host specificity, with strain-level variations in infection parameters. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Abstract

    Short timescale observations are valuable for understanding microbial ecological processes. We assessed dynamics in relative abundance and potential activities by sequencing the small sub-unit ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA gene) and rRNA molecules (rRNA) of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota once to twice daily between March 2014 and May 2014 from the surface ocean off Catalina Island, California. Typically Ostreococcus, Braarudosphaera, Teleaulax, and Synechococcus dominated phytoplankton sequences (including chloroplasts) while SAR11, Sulfitobacter, and Fluviicola dominated non-phytoplankton Bacteria and Archaea. We observed short-lived increases of diatoms, mostly Pseudo-nitzschia and Chaetoceros, with quickly responding Bacteria and Archaea including Flavobacteriaceae (Polaribacter & Formosa), Roseovarius, and Euryarchaeota (MGII), notably the exact amplicon sequence variants we observed responding similarly to another diatom bloom nearby, 3 years prior. We observed correlations representing known interactions among abundant phytoplankton rRNA sequences, demonstrating the biogeochemical and ecological relevance of such interactions: (1) The kleptochloroplastidic ciliate Mesodinium 18S rRNA gene sequences and a single Teleaulax taxon (via 16S rRNA gene sequences) were correlated (Spearman r = 0.83) yet uncorrelated to a Teleaulax 18S rRNA gene OTU, or any other taxon (consistent with a kleptochloroplastidic or karyokleptic relationship) and (2) the photosynthetic prymnesiophyte Braarudosphaera bigelowii and two strains of diazotrophic cyanobacterium UCYN-A were correlated and each taxon was also correlated to other taxa, including B. bigelowii to a verrucomicrobium and a dictyochophyte phytoplankter (all r > 0.8). We also report strong correlations (r > 0.7) between various ciliates, bacteria, and phytoplankton, suggesting interactions via currently unknown mechanisms. These data reiterate the utility of high-frequency time series to show rapid microbial reactions to stimuli, and provide new information about in situ dynamics of previously recognized and hypothesized interactions.

     
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  6. Summary

    Universal primers for SSU rRNA genes allow profiling of natural communities by simultaneously amplifying templates from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota in a single PCR reaction. Despite the potential to show relative abundance for all rRNA genes, universal primers are rarely used, due to various concerns including amplicon length variation and its effect on bioinformatic pipelines. We thus developed 16S and 18S rRNA mock communities and a bioinformatic pipeline to validate this approach. Using these mocks, we show that universal primers (515Y/926R) outperformed eukaryote‐specific V4 primers in observed versus expected abundance correlations (slope = 0.88 vs. 0.67–0.79), and mock community members with single mismatches to the primer were strongly underestimated (threefold to eightfold). Using field samples, both primers yielded similar 18S beta‐diversity patterns (Mantel test,p < 0.001) but differences in relative proportions of many rarer taxa. To test for length biases, we mixed mock communities (16S + 18S) before PCR and found a twofold underestimation of 18S sequences due to sequencing bias. Correcting for the twofold underestimation, we estimate that, in Southern California field samples (1.2–80 μm), there were averages of 35% 18S, 28% chloroplast 16S, and 37% prokaryote 16S rRNA genes. These data demonstrate the potential for universal primers to generate comprehensive microbiome profiles.

     
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