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  1. Complexes of 18-crown-6 ether (18C6) with four protonated amino acids (AAs) are examined using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy utilizing light generated by the infrared free electron laser at the Centre Laser Infrarouge d’Orsay (CLIO). The AAs examined in this work include glycine (Gly) and the three basic AAs: histidine (His), lysine (Lys), and arginine (Arg). To identify the (AA)H + (18C6) conformations present in the experimental studies, the measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Relative energies of various conformers and isomers are provided by single point energy calculations carried out at the B3LYP, B3P86, M06, and MP2(full) levels using the 6-311+G(2p,2d) basis set. The comparisons between the IRMPD and theoretical IR spectra indicate that 18C6 binds to Gly and His via the protonated backbone amino group, whereas protonated Lys prefers binding via the protonated side-chain amino group. Results for Arg are less definitive with strong evidence for binding to the protonated guanidino side chain (the calculated ground conformer at most levels of theory), but contributions from backbone binding to a zwitterionic structure are likely.
  2. The gas-phase conformations of the protonated forms of thymidine-5′-monophosphate and uridine-5′-monophosphate, [pdThd+H] + and [pUrd+H] + , are investigated by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations. The IRMPD action spectra of [pdThd+H] + and [pUrd+H] + are measured over the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions using the FELIX free electron laser and an OPO/OPA laser system. Low-energy conformations of [pdThd+H] + and [pUrd+H] + and their relative stabilities are computed at the MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Comparisons of the measured IRMPD action spectra and B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) linear IR spectra computed for the low-energy conformers indicate that the dominant conformers of [pdThd+H] + and [pUrd+H] + populated in the experiments are protonated at the phosphate oxo oxygen atom, with a syn nucleobase orientation that is stabilized by strong POH + ⋯O2 and P–OH⋯O4′ hydrogen-bonding interactions, and C2′- endo sugar puckering. Minor abundance of conformers protonated at the O2 carbonyl of the nucleobase residue may also contribute for [pdThd+H] + , but do not appear to be important for [pUrd+H] + . Comparisons to previous IRMPD spectroscopy investigations of the protonated forms of thymidine and uridine, [dThd+H] + and [Urd+H] + , and the deprotonated formsmore »of pdThd and pUrd, [pdThd−H] − and [pUrd−H] − , provide insight into the effects of the phosphate moiety and protonation on the conformational features of the nucleobase and sugar moieties. Most interestingly, the thymine and uracil nucleobases remain in their canonical forms for [pdThd+H] + and [pUrd+H] + , unlike [dThd+H] + and [Urd+H] + , where protonation occurs on the nucleobases and induces tautomerization of the thymine and uracil residues.« less