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Creators/Authors contains: "Neidig, Michael L."

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  1. A mechanistic study is performed on the reaction method for iron-catalyzed C–H methylation with AlMe 3 reagent, previously proposed to involve cyclometalated iron( iii ) intermediates and an iron( iii )/( i ) reaction cycle. Detailed spectroscopic studies ( 57 Fe Mössbauer, EPR) during catalysis and in stoichiometric reactions identify iron( ii ) complexes, including cyclometalated iron( ii ) intermediates, as the major iron species formed in situ under catalytic reaction conditions. Reaction studies identify a cyclometalated iron( ii )-methyl species as the key intermediate leading to C–H methylated product upon reaction with oxidant, consistent with a previously proposed iron( ii )/iron( iii )/iron( i ) reaction manifold for C–H arylation.
  2. Transition metal–catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are some of the most widely used methods in chemical synthesis. However, despite notable advantages of iron (Fe) as a potentially cheaper, more abundant, and less toxic transition metal catalyst, its practical application in multicomponent cross-couplings remains largely unsuccessful. We demonstrate 1,2-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane Fe–catalyzed coupling of α-boryl radicals (generated from selective radical addition to vinyl boronates) with Grignard reagents. Then, we extended the scope of these radical cascades by developing a general and broadly applicable Fe-catalyzed multicomponent annulation–cross-coupling protocol that engages a wide range of π-systems and permits the practical synthesis of cyclic fluorous compounds. Mechanistic studies are consistent with a bisarylated Fe(II) species being responsible for alkyl radical generation to initiate catalysis, while carbon-carbon bond formation proceeds between a monoarylated Fe(II) center and a transient alkyl radical.
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
  4. Synthetic methods that utilise iron to facilitate C–H bond activation to yield new C–C and C–heteroatom bonds continue to attract significant interest. However, the development of these systems is still hampered by a limited molecular-level understanding of the key iron intermediates and reaction pathways that enable selective product formation. While recent studies have established the mechanism for iron-catalysed C–H arylation from aryl-nucleophiles, the underlying mechanistic pathway of iron-catalysed C–H activation/functionalisation systems which utilise electrophiles to establish C–C and C–heteroatom bonds has not been determined. The present study focuses on an iron-catalysed C–H allylation system, which utilises allyl chlorides as electrophiles to establish a C–allyl bond. Freeze-trapped inorganic spectroscopic methods ( 57 Fe Mössbauer, EPR, and MCD) are combined with correlated reaction studies and kinetic analyses to reveal a unique and rapid reaction pathway by which the allyl electrophile reacts with a C–H activated iron intermediate. Supporting computational analysis defines this novel reaction coordinate as an inner-sphere radical process which features a partial iron–bisphosphine dissociation. Highlighting the role of the bisphosphine in this reaction pathway, a complementary study performed on the reaction of allyl electrophile with an analogous C–H activated intermediate bearing a more rigid bisphosphine ligand exhibits stifled yield andmore »selectivity towards allylated product. An additional spectroscopic analysis of an iron-catalysed C–H amination system, which incorporates N -chloromorpholine as the C–N bond-forming electrophile, reveals a rapid reaction of electrophile with an analogous C–H activated iron intermediate consistent with the inner-sphere radical process defined for the C–H allylation system, demonstrating the prevalence of this novel reaction coordinate in this sub-class of iron-catalysed C–H functionalisation systems. Overall, these results provide a critical mechanistic foundation for the rational design and development of improved systems that are efficient, selective, and useful across a broad range of C–H functionalisations.« less
  5. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy is a powerful experiment used to probe the electronic structure and bonding in paramagnetic metal-based complexes. While C -term MCD spectroscopy has been utilized in many areas of chemistry, it has been underutilized in studying paramagnetic organometallic transition metal and f-element complexes. From the analysis of isolated organometallic complexes to the study of in situ generated species, MCD can provide information regarding ligand interactions, oxidation and spin state, and geometry and coordination environment of paramagnetic species. The pratical aspects of this technique, such as air-free sample preparation and cryogenic experimental temperatures, allow for the study of highly unstable species, something that is often difficult with other spectroscopic techniques. This perspective highlights MCD studies of both transition metal and f-element organometallic complexes, including in situ generated reactive intermediates, to demonstrate the utility of this technique in probing electronic structure, bonding and mechanism in paramagnetic organometallic chemistry.
  6. We report the syntheses of a family of tetrahedral iron complexes bearing a bulky redox active o -phenylenediamide ligand. The electronic structures of these complexes have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and X-ray crystallography.