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  1. none. (Ed.)
    The concentration and isotopic composition (δC; C/N) of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in near-shore bays and offshore shelves and basins is impacted by organic matter source (e.g., marine algae, terrestrial plants, and agricultural and sewage runoff) and natural and anthropogenic processes such as pollution, terrestrial runoff, and climate change, which can expand oxygen minimum zones, leading to decreased bottom-water dissolved oxygen (DO) and enhanced organic matter preservation. The factors that affect the sources and concentrations of SOM have not been extensively investigatedin the California margin. The objective of this study was to determine how the SOM concentrations andstable isotopes (δC; C/N) vary between shallow urban bays, offshore shelves, and deep basins and with other factors (water depth, DO and grain size). On cruises in 2018, surface sediments were collected using multicores and van-veen grabs. Samples were collected from shelves (10-14km offshore; 100-300m) and basins (90-130km offshore; 618-997m)and for comparison, urban bays in San Diego. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations of seafloor-water preserved in the multicores were measured with a hand-held DO meter. In the lab, SOM concentrations were determined by Loss on Ignition (5 hours, 550°C) and grain-size distributions were determined by scanning on a CILAS 1190 particle size analyzer. Select sediments were dissolved in HCl and filtered to remove inorganic carbonates and the δC and C/N measured at UC Davis. All sediments were organic rich (2-21%) with mean grain sizes of fi ne sand or silt with variable clay (3-12%). In general, the sands were lower in organic matter (< 5%) compared to silty samples withvariable concentrations (2-22%). The greatest organic matter was found in the deeper hypoxic basins where DO was less than 1.5 mg/L. The δC & C/N were consistent with mixed terrestrial and marine organic sources and there was not a difference in mean values between the bays, shelves and basins.However, the values were highly variable for the urban bay and shelf sediments suggesting heterogenous input. Organic matter in coastal sediments are an important component of the global carbon cycle and abetter understanding of controlling factors is important in the face of climate change and increased anthropogenic impacts. 
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  2. Abstract

    The residence time of fluids circulating through deep‐sea hydrothermal systems influences the extent of water‐rock reactions and the flux of major and minor elements to the ocean. While the fluid residence times in numerous basaltic and gabbroic systems have been determined, those of the less studied ultramafic systems are currently unknown. Fluids that interact with mantle rocks have fundamentally different chemistries and therefore have unique influences on seawater chemistry. In this first investigation of radium isotopes in a serpentinite‐hosted system, vent fluids were discovered to contain 10–100 times greater activities of223Ra (half‐life = 11.4 days) than observed in high‐temperature basalt‐hosted systems. The223Ra activities of 10–109 dpm L−1produce223Ra/226Ra activity ratios ranging from 9 to 109. These extremely high223Ra activities, which are accompanied by low activities of226Ra, place significant constraints on fluid residence times and the adsorption coefficient of radium between fluid and rock. Our data constrain the nondimensional retardation factor (R) to very low values between 1 and 4, reflecting the extent to which Ra is transported more slowly than fluids due to adsorption and other processes. These results suggest that the residence time of fluids in contact with serpentinite is less than 2 y and perhaps as low as 0.5 y. They are surprisingly similar to those of basalt‐hosted systems. Thus, fluids in hydrothermal systems share similar hydrogeological characteristics despite differences in rock types, underlying porosity, and heat sources, enabling larger‐scale models of hydrothermal biogeochemistry to be developed across systems.

     
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  3. For years, there has been discussion about physical security in the maritime transportation system (MTS). That discussion has led to standards, regulations, etc. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in cyber security in the MTS that has led to discussions about best practices for cyber security. It is likely that many future attacks on the MTS (and other systems) will be multi-modal, including both a cyber and a physical component. As a simple example, hacking into security cameras at a port increases vulnerability to a physical intrusion. Thus, a cyber attack could be a precursor to a physical attack, and in fact the opposite could also be the case. This paper presents scenarios of combined cyber and physical attacks and describes ways to understand their likelihood based on ease of attack and seriousness of potential consequences. 
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  4. Decision makers in all kinds of organizations, and in particular those concerned with homeland security, need to be able to easily flag trends so that they can respond, for example with a reallocation of resources or a review of policies and procedures. This paper introduces a simple-to-use tool called the TrendFlagger that allows a decision maker to get evidence that a trend may be appearing without requiring statistical sophistication. The TrendFlagger will be illustrated using a source of data that organizations might use to study shipping trends and vessel behavior, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) now required by international agreement on all ships of 300 gross tons or more and all passenger ships. 
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  5. Abstract

    To understand how diverse mutualisms coevolve and how species adapt to complex environments, a description of the underlying genetic basis of the traits involved must be provided. For example, in diverse coevolving mutualisms, such as the interaction of host plants with a suite of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi, a key question is whether host plants can coevolve independently with multiple species of symbionts, which depends on whether those interactions are governed independently by separate genes or pleiotropically by shared genes. To provide insight into this question, we employed an association mapping approach in a clonally replicated field experiment of loblolly pine (Pinus taedaL.) to identify genetic components of host traits governing ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses (mycorrhizal traits). The relative abundances of different EM fungi as well as the total number of root tips per cm root colonized by EM fungi were analyzed as separate mycorrhizal traits of loblolly pine. Single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes of loblolly pine were associated with loblolly pine mycorrhizal traits, mapped to the loblolly pine genome, and their putative protein function obtained when available. The results support the hypothesis that ectomycorrhiza formation is governed by host genes of large effect that apparently have independent influences on host interactions with different symbiont species.

     
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  6. We conducted a population genetic analysis of the stalked kelp,Pterygophora californica, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California,USA. The results were compared with previous work on the genetic differentiation of giant kelp,Macrocystis pyrifera,in the same region. These two sympatric kelps not only share many life history and dispersal characteristics but also differ in that dislodgedP. californicadoes not produce floating rafts with buoyant fertile sporophytes, commonly observed forM. pyrifera. We used a comparative population genetic approach with these two species to test the hypothesis that the ability to produce floating rafts increases the genetic connectivity among kelp patches in the Santa Barbara Channel. We quantified the association of habitat continuity and oceanographic distance with the genetic differentiation observed in stalked kelp, like previously conducted for giant kelp. We compared both overall (across all patches) and pairwise (between patches) genetic differentiation. We found that oceanographic transit time, habitat continuity, and geographic distance were all associated with genetic connectivity inP. californica, supporting similar previous findings forM. pyrifera. Controlling for differences in heterozygosity between kelp species using Jost'sDEST, we showed that global differentiation and pairwise differentiation were similar among patches between the two kelp species, indicating that they have similar dispersal capabilities despite their differences in rafting ability. These results suggest that rafting sporophytes do not play a significant role in effective dispersal ofM. pyriferaat ecologically relevant spatial and temporal scales.

     
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