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  1. Abstract

    We present the stellar mass–stellar metallicity relation for 3491 star-forming galaxies at 2 ≲z≲ 3 using rest-frame far-ultraviolet spectra from the LyαTomography IMACS Survey (LATIS). We fit stellar population synthesis models from the Binary Population And Spectral Synthesis code (v2.2.1) to medium-resolution (R∼ 1000) and high signal-to-noise (>30 per 100 km s−1over the wavelength range 1221–1800 Å) composite spectra of galaxies in bins of stellar mass to determine their stellar metallicity, primarily tracing Fe/H. We find a strong correlation between stellar mass and stellar metallicity, with stellar metallicity monotonically increasing with stellar mass at low masses and flattening at high masses (M*≳ 1010.3M). Additionally, we compare our stellar metallicity measurements with the gas-phase oxygen abundance of galaxies at similar redshift and estimate the average [α/Fe] ∼ 0.6. Such highα-enhancement indicates that high-redshift galaxies have not yet undergone significant iron enrichment through Type Ia supernovae. Moreover, we utilize an analytic chemical evolution model to constrain the mass loading parameter of galactic winds as a function of stellar mass. We find that as the stellar mass increases, the mass loading parameter decreases. The parameter then flattens or reaches a turning point at aroundM*∼ 1010.5M. Our findings may signal the onset of black-hole-driven outflows atz∼ 2.5 for galaxies withM*≳ 1010.5M.

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  2. Abstract

    The connection between galaxies and dark matter halos is often quantified using the stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. Optical and near-infrared imaging surveys have led to a broadly consistent picture of the evolving SMHM relation based on measurements of galaxy abundances and angular correlation functions. Spectroscopic surveys atz≳ 2 can also constrain the SMHM relation via the galaxy autocorrelation function and through the cross-correlation between galaxies and Lyαabsorption measured in transverse sight lines; however, such studies are very few and have produced some unexpected or inconclusive results. We use ∼3000 spectra ofz∼ 2.5 galaxies from the LyαTomography IMACS Survey (LATIS) to measure the galaxy–galaxy and galaxy–Lyαcorrelation functions in four bins of stellar mass spanning 109.2M*/M≲ 1010.5. Parallel analyses of the MultiDarkN-body and ASTRID hydrodynamic cosmological simulations allow us to model the correlation functions, estimate covariance matrices, and infer halo masses. We find that results of the two methods are mutually consistent and broadly accord with standard SMHM relations. This consistency demonstrates that we are able to measure and model Lyαtransmission fluctuationsδFin LATIS accurately. We also show that the galaxy–Lyαcross-correlation, a free by-product of optical spectroscopic galaxy surveys at these redshifts, can constrain halo masses with similar precision to galaxy–galaxy clustering.

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    We forecast the prospects for cross-correlating future line intensity mapping (LIM) surveys with the current and future Ly-α forest measurements. Using large cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, we model the emission from the CO rotational transition in the CO Mapping Array Project LIM experiment at the 5-yr benchmark and the Ly-α forest absorption signal for extended Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BOSS), Dark energy survey instrument (DESI), and Prime Focus multiplex Spectroscopy survey (PFS). We show that CO × Ly-α forest significantly enhances the detection signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of CO, with up to $300{{\ \rm per\, cent}}$ improvement when correlated with the PFS Ly-α forest survey and a 50–75 per cent enhancement with the available eBOSS or the upcoming DESI observations. This is competitive with even CO × spectroscopic galaxy surveys. Furthermore, our study suggests that the clustering of CO emission is tightly constrained by CO × Ly-α forest due to the increased sensitivity and the simplicity of Ly-α absorption modelling. Foreground contamination or systematics are expected not to be shared between LIM and Ly-α forest observations, providing an unbiased inference. Ly-α forest will aid in detecting the first LIM signals. We also estimate that [C ii] × Ly-α forest measurements from Experiment for Cryogenic Large-Aperture Intensity Mapping and DESI/eBOSS should have a larger S/N than planned [C ii] × quasar observations by about an order of magnitude.

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  4. Abstract

    Lyαtomography surveys have begun to produce 3D maps of the intergalactic medium opacity atz∼ 2.5 with megaparsec resolution. These surveys provide an exciting new way to discover and characterize high-redshift overdensities, including the progenitors of today’s massive groups and clusters of galaxies, known as protogroups and protoclusters. We use the IllustrisTNG-300 hydrodynamical simulation to build mock maps that realistically mimic those observed in the LyαTomographic IMACS Survey. We introduce a novel method for delineating the boundaries of structures detected in 3D Lyαflux maps by applying the watershed algorithm. We provide estimators for the dark matter masses of these structures (atz∼ 2.5), their descendant halo masses atz= 0, and the corresponding uncertainties. We also investigate the completeness of this method for the detection of protogroups and protoclusters. Compared to earlier work, we apply and characterize our method over a wider mass range that extends to massive protogroups. We also assess the widely used fluctuating Gunn–Peterson approximation applied to dark-matter-only simulations; we conclude that while it is adequate for estimating the Lyαabsorption signal from moderate-to-massive protoclusters (≳1014.2h−1M), it artificially merges a minority of lower-mass structures with more massive neighbors. Our methods will be applied to current and future Lyαtomography surveys to create catalogs of overdensities and study environment-dependent galactic evolution in the Cosmic Noon era.

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  5. Abstract

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a fundamental property in the measurement of stellar masses and galaxy star formation histories. In this work, we focus on the most massive galaxies in the nearby universelog(M/M)>11.2. We obtain high-quality Magellan/LDSS-3 long-slit spectroscopy with a wide wavelength coverage of 0.4–1.01μm for 41 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the MASSIVE survey and derive high signal-to-noise spectra within an aperture ofRe/8. Using detailed stellar synthesis models, we constrain the elemental abundances and stellar IMF of each galaxy through full spectral modeling. All the ETGs in our sample have an IMF that is steeper than a Milky Way (Kroupa) IMF. The best-fit IMF mismatch parameter,αIMF= (M/L)/(M/L)MW, ranges from 1.1 to 3.1, with an average of 〈αIMF〉 = 1.84, suggesting that on average, the IMF is more bottom heavy than Salpeter. Comparing the estimated stellar masses with the dynamical masses, we find that most galaxies have stellar masses that are smaller than their dynamical masses within the 1σuncertainty. We complement our sample with lower-mass galaxies from the literature and confirm thatlog(αIMF)is positively correlated withlog(σ),log(M), andlog(Mdyn). From the combined sample, we show that the IMF in the centers of more massive ETGs is more bottom heavy. In addition, we find thatlog(αIMF)is positively correlated with both [Mg/Fe] and the estimated total metallicity [Z/H]. We find suggestive evidence that the effective stellar surface density ΣKroupamight be responsible for the variation ofαIMF. We conclude thatσ, [Mg/Fe], and [Z/H] are the primary drivers of the global stellar IMF variation.

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    Rotation curves of galaxies probe their total mass distributions, including dark matter. Dwarf galaxies are excellent systems to investigate the dark matter density distribution, as they tend to have larger fractions of dark matter compared to higher mass systems. The core-cusp problem describes the discrepancy found in the slope of the dark matter density profile in the centres of galaxies (β*) between observations of dwarf galaxies (shallower cores) and dark matter-only simulations (steeper cusps). We investigate β* in six nearby spiral dwarf galaxies for which high-resolution CO J = 1–0 data were obtained with ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). We derive rotation curves and decompose the mass profile of the dark matter using our CO rotation curves as a tracer of the total potential and 4.5 $\mu$m photometry to define the stellar mass distribution. We find 〈β*〉 = 0.6 with a standard deviation of ±0.1 among the galaxies in this sample, in agreement with previous measurements in this mass range. The galaxies studied are on the high stellar mass end of dwarf galaxies and have cuspier profiles than lower mass dwarfs, in agreement with other observations. When the same definition of the slope is used, we observe steeper slopes than predicted by the FIRE and NIHAO simulations. This may signal that these relatively massive dwarfs underwent stronger gas inflows towards their centres than predicted by these simulations, that these simulations overpredict the frequency of accretion or feedback events, or that a combination of these or other effects are at work.

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