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  1. The family of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) regulates epigenetics and signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. So far, knowledge of different KAT members contributing to the cellular acetylome is limited, which limits our understanding of biological functions of KATs in physiology and disease. Here, we found that a clickable acyl-CoA reporter, 3-azidopropanoyl CoA (3AZ-CoA), presented remarkable cell permeability and effectively acylated proteins in cells. We rationally engineered the major KAT member, histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1), to generate its mutant forms that displayed excellent bio-orthogonal activity for 3AZ-CoA in substrate labeling. We were able to apply the bio-orthogonal enzyme–cofactor pair combined with SILAC proteomics to achieve HAT1 substrate targeting, enrichment, and proteomic profiling in living cells. A total of 123 protein substrates of HAT1 were disclosed, underlining the multifactorial functions of this important enzyme than hitherto known. This study demonstrates the first example of utilizing bio-orthogonal reporters as a chemoproteomic strategy for substrate mapping of individual KAT isoforms in the native biological contexts. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Short-chain acylations of lysine residues in eukaryotic proteins are recognized as essential posttranslational chemical modifications (PTMs) that regulate cellular processes from transcription, cell cycle, metabolism, to signal transduction. Lysine butyrylation was initially discovered as a normal straight chain butyrylation (Knbu). Here we report its structural isomer, branched chain butyrylation, i.e. lysine isobutyrylation (Kibu), existing as a new PTM on nuclear histones. Uniquely, isobutyryl-CoA is derived from valine catabolism and branched chain fatty acid oxidation which is distinct from the metabolism of n-butyryl-CoA. Several histone acetyltransferases were found to possess lysine isobutyryltransferase activity in vitro, especially p300 and HAT1. Transfection and western blot experiments showed that p300 regulated histone isobutyrylation levels in the cell. We resolved the X-ray crystal structures of HAT1 in complex with isobutyryl-CoA that gleaned an atomic level insight into HAT-catalyzed isobutyrylation. RNA-Seq profiling revealed that isobutyrate greatly affected the expression of genes associated with many pivotal biological pathways. Together, our findings identify Kibu as a novel chemical modification mark in histones and suggest its extensive role in regulating epigenetics and cellular physiology. 
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  3. Abstract

    Developing selective enzyme inhibitors allows for the expansion of molecular toolboxes to investigate functions and activities of target enzymes. The histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1) is among the first histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes that were discovered in the mid‐1990s; however, it remains one of the poorly studied enzymes in comparison with the otherHATs. AlthoughHAT1 has been linked to various disease states, no inhibitors have been reported to targetHAT1. Here, we designed a set of peptide‐CoA conjugates as bisubstrate inhibitors ofHAT1 with submicromolar potency. In particular, the bisubstrate inhibitor H4K12CoA exhibited a lowKivalue of 1.1 nM forHAT1. In addition, H4K12CoA was shown to be a competitive inhibitor with respect to both AcCoA and H4 peptide, suggesting a unique kinetic mechanism ofHAT1 catalysis. Creating these submicromolar inhibitors offers mechanistic tools to better understand howHAT1 recognizes substrates and cofactors, as well as provides chemical leads to further develop therapeutic agents to target this important enzyme for disease therapy.

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