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  1. Abstract With the advance of particle accelerator and detector technologies, the neutrino physics landscape is rapidly expanding. As neutrino oscillation experiments enter the intensity and precision frontiers, neutrino–nucleus interaction measurements are providing crucial input. MINERvA is an experiment at Fermilab dedicated to the study of neutrino–nucleus interactions in the regime of incident neutrino energies from one to few GeV. The experiment recorded neutrino and antineutrino scattering data with the NuMI beamline from 2009 to 2019 using the Low-Energy and Medium-Energy beams that peak at 3GeV and 6GeV, respectively. This article reviews the broad spectrum of interesting nuclear and particle physicsmore »that MINERvA investigations have illuminated. The newfound, detailed knowledge of neutrino interactions with nuclear targets thereby obtained is proving essential to continued progress in the neutrino physics sector.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Thispaperdescribesanewphysicalsidechannel,i.e. the backscattering side channel, that is created by transmitting a signal toward the IC, where the internal impedance changes caused by on-chip switching activity modulate the signal that is backscattered (reflected) from the IC. To demonstrate how this new side-channel can be used to detect small changes in circuit impedances, we propose a new method for nondestructively detecting hardware Trojans (HTs) from outside of the chip. We experimentally confirm, using measurements on one physical instance for training and nine other physical instances for testing, that the new side-channel, when combined with an HT detection method, allows detection of amore »dormant HT in 100% of the HT-afflicted measurements for a number of different HTs, while producing no false positives in HT free measurements. Furthermore, additional experiments are conducted to compare the backscattering-based detection to one that uses the traditional EM-emanation-based side channel. These results show that backscattering-based detection outperforms the EM side channel, confirm that dormant HTs are much more difficult for detection than HTs that have been activated, and show how detection is affected by changing the HT’s size and physical location on the IC.« less
  3. Thispaperdescribesanewphysicalsidechannel,i.e. the backscattering side channel, that is created by transmitting a signal toward the IC, where the internal impedance changes caused by on-chip switching activity modulate the signal that is backscattered (reflected) from the IC. To demonstrate how this new side-channel can be used to detect small changes in circuit impedances, we propose a new method for nondestructively detecting hardware Trojans (HTs) from outside of the chip. We experimentally confirm, using measurements on one physical instance for training and nine other physical instances for testing, that the new side-channel, when combined with an HT detection method, allows detection of amore »dormant HT in 100% of the HT-afflicted measurements for a number of different HTs, while producing no false positives in HT free measurements. Furthermore, additional experiments are conducted to compare the backscattering-based detection to one that uses the traditional EM-emanation-based side channel. These results show that backscattering-based detection outperforms the EM side channel, confirm that dormant HTs are much more difficult for detection than HTs that have been activated, and show how detection is affected by changing the HT’s size and physical location on the IC.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  6. null (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022