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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Synopsis

    The gastropod shell is a composite composed of minerals and shell matrix proteins (SMPs). SMPs have been identified by proteomics in many molluscs, but few have been studied in detail. Open questions include (1) what gene regulatory networks regulate SMP expression, (2) what roles individual SMPs play in biomineralization, and (3) how the complement of SMPs changes over development. These questions are best addressed in a species in which gene perturbation studies are available; one such species is the slipper snail, Crepidula fornicata. Here, SEM and pXRD analysis demonstrated that the adult shell of C. fornicata exhibits crossed lamellar microstructure and is composed of aragonite. Using high-throughput proteomics we identified 185 SMPs occluded within the adult shell. Over half of the proteins in the shell proteome have known biomineralization domains, while at least 10% have no homologs in public databases. Differential gene expression analysis identified 20 SMP genes that are up-regulated in the shell-producing mantle tissue. Over half of these 20 SMPs are expressed during development with two, CfSMP1 and CfSMP2, expressed exclusively in the shell gland. Together, the description of the shell microstructure and a list of SMPs now sets the stage for studying the consequences of SMP gene knockdowns in molluscs.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. Abstract. Calculating solar-sensor zenith and azimuth angles for hyperspectral images collected by UAVs are important in terms of conducting bi-directional reflectance function (BRDF) correction or radiative transfer modeling-based applications in remote sensing. These applications are even more necessary to perform high-throughput phenotyping and precision agriculture tasks. This study demonstrates an automated Python framework that can calculate the solar-sensor zenith and azimuth angles for a push-broom hyperspectral camera equipped in a UAV. First, the hyperspectral images were radiometrically and geometrically corrected. Second, the high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data for the flight path was extracted and corresponding UAV points for each pixel were identified. Finally, the angles were calculated using spherical trigonometry and linear algebra. The results show that the solar zenith angle (SZA) and solar azimuth angle (SAA) calculated by our method provided higher precision angular values compared to other available tools. The viewing zenith angle (VZA) was lower near the flight path and higher near the edge of the images. The viewing azimuth angle (VAA) pattern showed higher values to the left and lower values to the right side of the flight line. The methods described in this study is easily reproducible to other study areas and applications. 
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  8. Abstract Scattering of high energy particles from nucleons probes their structure, as was done in the experiments that established the non-zero size of the proton using electron beams 1 . The use of charged leptons as scattering probes enables measuring the distribution of electric charges, which is encoded in the vector form factors of the nucleon 2 . Scattering weakly interacting neutrinos gives the opportunity to measure both vector and axial vector form factors of the nucleon, providing an additional, complementary probe of their structure. The nucleon transition axial form factor, F A , can be measured from neutrino scattering from free nucleons, ν μ n  →  μ − p and $${\bar{\nu }}_{\mu }p\to {\mu }^{+}n$$ ν ¯ μ p → μ + n , as a function of the negative four-momentum transfer squared ( Q 2 ). Up to now, F A ( Q 2 ) has been extracted from the bound nucleons in neutrino–deuterium scattering 3–9 , which requires uncertain nuclear corrections 10 . Here we report the first high-statistics measurement, to our knowledge, of the $${\bar{\nu }}_{\mu }\,p\to {\mu }^{+}n$$ ν ¯ μ p → μ + n cross-section from the hydrogen atom, using the plastic scintillator target of the MINERvA 11 experiment, extracting F A from free proton targets and measuring the nucleon axial charge radius, r A , to be 0.73 ± 0.17 fm. The antineutrino–hydrogen scattering presented here can access the axial form factor without the need for nuclear theory corrections, and enables direct comparisons with the increasingly precise lattice quantum chromodynamics computations 12–15 . Finally, the tools developed for this analysis and the result presented are substantial advancements in our capabilities to understand the nucleon structure in the weak sector, and also help the current and future neutrino oscillation experiments 16–20 to better constrain neutrino interaction models. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 2, 2024