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  1. Many globally distributed data stores need to replicate data across large geographic distances. Since synchronously replicating data across such distances is slow, those systems with high consistency requirements often geo-partition data and direct all linearizable requests to the primary region of the accessed data. This significantly improves performance for workloads where most transactions access data close to where they originate from. However, supporting serializable multi-geo-partition transactions is a challenge, and they often degrade the performance of the whole system. This becomes even more challenging when they conflict with single-partition requests, where optimistic protocols lead to high numbers of aborts, and pessimistic protocols lead to high numbers of distributed deadlocks. In this paper, we describe the design of concurrency control and deadlock resolution protocols, built within a practical, complete implementation of a geographically replicated database system called Detock, that enables processing strictly-serializable multi-region transactions with near-zero performance degradation at extremely high conflict and order of magnitude higher throughput relative to state-of-the art geo-replication approaches, while improving latency by up to a factor of 5.

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  2. Abstract During near-0°C surface conditions, diverse precipitation types (p-types) are possible, including rain, drizzle, freezing rain, freezing drizzle, ice pellets, wet snow, snow, and snow pellets. Near-0°C precipitation affects wide swaths of the United States and Canada, impacting aviation, road transportation, power generation and distribution, winter recreation, ecology, and hydrology. Fundamental challenges remain in observing, diagnosing, simulating, and forecasting near-0°C p-types, particularly during transitions and within complex terrain. Motivated by these challenges, the field phase of the Winter Precipitation Type Research Multi-scale Experiment (WINTRE-MIX) was conducted from 1 February – 15 March 2022 to better understand how multiscale processes influence the variability and predictability of p-type and amount under near-0°C surface conditions. WINTRE-MIX took place near the US / Canadian border, in northern New York and southern Quebec, a region with plentiful near-0°C precipitation influenced by terrain. During WINTRE-MIX, existing advanced mesonets in New York and Quebec were complemented by deployment of: (1) surface instruments, (2) the National Research Council Convair-580 research aircraft with W- and X-band Doppler radars and in situ cloud and aerosol instrumentation, (3) two X-band dual-polarization Doppler radars and a C-band dual-polarization Doppler radar from University of Illinois, and (4) teams collecting manual hydrometeor observations and radiosonde measurements. Eleven intensive observing periods (IOPs) were coordinated. Analysis of these WINTRE-MIX IOPs is illuminating how synoptic dynamics, mesoscale dynamics, and microscale processes combine to determine p-type and its predictability under near-0°C conditions. WINTRE-MIX research will contribute to improving nowcasts and forecasts of near-0°C precipitation through evaluation and refinement of observational diagnostics and numerical forecast models. 
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  3. Abstract A new method that automatically determines the modality of an observed particle size distribution (PSD) and the representation of each mode as a gamma function was used to characterize data obtained during the High Altitude Ice Crystals and High Ice Water Content (HAIC-HIWC) project based out of Cayenne, French Guiana, in 2015. PSDs measured by a 2D stereo probe and a precipitation imaging probe for particles with maximum dimension ( D max ) > 55 μ m were used to show how the gamma parameters varied with environmental conditions, including temperature ( T ) and convective properties such as cloud type, mesoscale convective system (MCS) age, distance away from the nearest convective peak, and underlying surface characteristics. Four kinds of modality PSDs were observed: unimodal PSDs and three types of multimodal PSDs (Bimodal1 with breakpoints 100 ± 20 μ m between modes, Bimodal2 with breakpoints 1000 ± 300 μ m, and Trimodal PSDs with two breakpoints). The T and ice water content (IWC) are the most important factors influencing the modality of PSDs, with the frequency of multimodal PSDs increasing with increasing T and IWC. An ellipsoid of equally plausible solutions in ( N o – λ–μ ) phase space is defined for each mode of the observed PSDs for different environmental conditions. The percentage overlap between ellipsoids was used to quantify the differences between overlapping ellipsoids for varying conditions. The volumes of the ellipsoid decrease with increasing IWC for most cases, and ( N o – λ–μ ) vary with environmental conditions related to distribution of IWC. HIWC regions are dominated by small irregular ice crystals and columns. The parameters ( N o – λ–μ ) in each mode exhibit mutual dependence. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2024
  6. Abstract. Secondary ice production (SIP) is an important physicalphenomenon that results in an increase in the ice particle concentration and cantherefore have a significant impact on the evolution of clouds. In thisstudy, idealized simulations of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) wereconducted using a high-resolution (250 m horizontal grid spacing) mesoscalemodel and a detailed bulk microphysics scheme in order to examine theimpacts of SIP on the microphysics and dynamics of a simulated tropical MCS.The simulations were compared to airborne in situ and remote sensing observationscollected during the “High Altitude Ice Crystals – High Ice Water Content”(HAIC-HIWC) field campaign in 2015. It was found that the observed high icenumber concentration can only be simulated by models that include SIPprocesses. The inclusion of SIP processes in the microphysics scheme is crucialfor the production and maintenance of the high ice water content observed intropical convection. It was shown that SIP can enhance the strength of theexisting convective updrafts and result in the initiation of new updraftsabove the melting layer. Agreement between the simulations and observationshighlights the impacts of SIP on the maintenance of tropical MCSs in natureand the importance of including SIP parameterizations in models. 
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  7. Abstract. High ice water content (HIWC) regions in tropical deep convective clouds, composed of high concentrations of small ice crystals, were not reproduced by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations at 1 km horizontal grid spacing using four different bulk microphysics schemes (i.e., the WRF single‐moment 6‐class microphysics scheme (WSM6), the Morrison scheme and the Predicted Particle Properties (P3) scheme with one- and two-ice options) for conditions encountered during the High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) and HIWC experiment. Instead, overestimates of radar reflectivity and underestimates of ice number concentrations were realized. To explore formation mechanisms for large numbers of small ice crystals in tropical convection, a series of quasi-idealized WRF simulations varying the model resolution, aerosol profile, and representation of secondary ice production (SIP) processes are conducted based on an observed radiosonde released at Cayenne during the HAIC-HIWC field campaign. The P3 two-ice category configuration, which has two “free” ice categories to represent all ice-phase hydrometeors, is used. Regardless of the horizontal grid spacing or aerosol profile used, without including SIP processes the model produces total ice number concentrations about 2 orders of magnitude less than observed at −10 ∘C and about an order of magnitude less than observed at −30 ∘C but slightly overestimates the total ice number concentrations at −45 ∘C. Three simulations including one of three SIP mechanisms separately (i.e., the Hallett–Mossop mechanism, fragmentation during ice–ice collisions, and shattering of freezing droplets) also do not replicate observed HIWCs, with the results of the simulation including shattering of freezing droplets most closely resembling the observations. The simulation including all three SIP processes produces HIWC regions at all temperature levels, remarkably consistent with the observations in terms of ice number concentrations and radar reflectivity, which is not replicated using the original P3 two-ice category configuration. This simulation shows that primary ice production plays a key role in generating HIWC regions at temperatures <-40 ∘C, shattering of freezing droplets dominates ice particle production in HIWC regions at temperatures between −15 and 0 ∘C during the early stage of convection, and fragmentation during ice–ice collisions dominates at temperatures between −15 and 0 ∘C during the later stage of convection and at temperatures between −40 and −20 ∘C over the whole convection period. This study confirms the dominant role of SIP processes in the formation of numerous small crystals in HIWC regions. 
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