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  1. Abstract

    We analyze image and spectral data from ≈365 ks of observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory of the nearby, edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 253 to constrain properties of the hot phase of the outflow. We focus our analysis on the −1.1 to +0.63 kpc region of the outflow and define several regions for spectral extraction where we determine best-fit temperatures and metal abundances. We find that the temperatures and electron densities peak in the central ∼250 pc region of the outflow and decrease with distance. These temperature and density profiles are in disagreement with an adiabatic spherically expanding starburst wind model and suggest the presence of additional physics such as mass loading and nonspherical outflow geometry. Our derived temperatures and densities yield cooling times in the nuclear region of a few million years, which may imply that the hot gas can undergo bulk radiative cooling as it escapes along the minor axis. Our metal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe all peak in the central region and decrease with distance along the outflow, with the exception of Ne, which maintains a flat distribution. The metal abundances indicate significant dilution outside of the starburst region. We also find estimates of the mass outflow rates, which are 2.8Myr−1in the northern outflow and 3.2Myr−1in the southern outflow. Additionally, we detect emission from charge exchange and find it makes a significant contribution (20%–42%) to the total broadband (0.5–7 keV) X-ray emission in the central and southern regions of the outflow.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Galactic outflows from local starburst galaxies typically exhibit a layered geometry, with cool 104K flow sheathing a hotter 107K, cylindrically collimated, X-ray-emitting plasma. Here we argue that winds driven by energy injection in a ring-like geometry can produce this distinctive large-scale multiphase morphology. The ring configuration is motivated by the observation that massive young star clusters are often distributed in a ring at the host galaxy’s inner Lindblad resonance, where larger-scale spiral arm structure terminates. We present parameterized three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamical simulations that follow the emergence and dynamics of energy-driven hot winds from starburst rings. In this letter, we show that the flow shocks on itself within the inner ring hole, maintaining high 107K temperatures, while flows that emerge from the wind-driving ring unobstructed can undergo rapid bulk cooling down to 104K, producing a fast hot biconical outflow enclosed by a sheath of cooler nearly comoving material without ram pressure acceleration. The hot flow is collimated along the ring axis, even in the absence of pressure confinement from a galactic disk or magnetic fields. In the early stages of expansion, the emerging wind forms a bubble-like shape reminiscent of the Milky Way’s eROSITA and Fermi bubbles and can reach velocities usually associated with active-galactic-nucleus-driven winds. We discuss the physics of the ring configuration, the conditions for radiative bulk cooling, and the implications for future X-ray observations.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    The analytic galactic wind model derived by Chevalier and Clegg in 1985 (CC85) assumes uniform energy and mass-injection within the starburst galaxy nucleus. However, the structure of nuclear star clusters, bulges, and star-forming knots are non-uniform. We generalize to cases with spherically-symmetric energy/mass injection that scale as r−Δ within the starburst volume R, providing solutions for Δ = 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2. In marked contrast with the CC85 model (Δ = 0), which predicts zero velocity at the centre, for a singular isothermal sphere profile (Δ = 2), we find that the flow maintains a constant Mach number of $\mathcal {M}=\sqrt{3/5} \simeq 0.77$ throughout the volume. The fast interior flow can be written as $v_{r \lt R} = (\dot{E}_T/3\dot{M}_T)^{1/2} \simeq 0.41 \, v_\infty$, where v∞ is the asymptotic velocity, and $\dot{E}_T$ and $\dot{M}_T$ are the total energy and mass injection rates. For $v_\infty \simeq 2000 \, \mathrm{km \, s^{-1}}$, $v_{r\lt R} \simeq 820 \, \mathrm{km\, s^{-1}}$ throughout the wind-driving region. The temperature and density profiles of the non-uniform models may be important for interpreting spatially-resolved maps of starburst nuclei. We compute velocity resolved spectra to contrast the Δ = 0 (CC85) and Δ = 2 models. Next generation X-ray space telescopes such as XRISM may assess these kinematic predictions.

     
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