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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  2. The analysis of wave patterns in a structure which possesses periodicity in the spatial and temporal dimensions is presented. The topic of imperfect chiral interfaces is also considered. Although causality is fundamental for physical processes, natural wave phenomena can be observed when a wave is split at a temporal interface. A wave split at a spatial interface is a more common occurrence; however, when the coefficients of the governing equations are time-dependent, the temporal interface becomes important. Here, the associated frontal waves are studied, and regimes are analysed where the growth of the solution in time is found. Imperfect interfaces, across which the displacements are discontinuous, are also considered in the vector case of chiral elastic systems. Analytical study and asymptotic approximations are supplied with illustrative numerical examples. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Wave generation and transmission in multi-scale complex media and structured metamaterials (part 1)’. 
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    Rates of development of the feeding larvae of marine invertebrates may often be limited by inadequate food, extending the length of the larval period and increasing overall larval mortality. A better understanding of the frequency and importance of this phenomenon requires knowledge of the food concentration below which larvae are limited, and above which they are not, as well as estimates of how strongly food supply affects length of the planktonic period. We addressed these issues using larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus as a model and chl a concentration as a metric of food abundance. We reared larvae in natural seawater collected from coastal southern California (USA), as well as in reduced and supplemented food treatments created from this natural seawater, 6 times from 2017 to 2019 to take advantage of temporal variation in chl a concentration. Larvae showed morphological responses indicative of low food in nature in only 1 of 6 experiments and showed delayed time to 50% metamorphic competence in 2 of 6 experiments. Larvae appeared to be food limited below chl a concentrations of ~2.4-3.0 µg l -1 , but developed at maximal rates at higher food concentrations. Low natural food supplies delayed time to 50% competence by up to 1.25 d. An 11 yr record of chl a concentration in waters of coastal southern California suggests that larvae of D. excentricus are likely food limited in developmental rate throughout much of the year except for late winter to late spring. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
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