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  1. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) involves acquisition and reconstruction of a series of images at multi-echo time points to estimate tissue field, which prolongs scan time and requires specific reconstruction technique. In this paper, we present our new framework, called Learned Acquisition and Reconstruction Op- timization (LARO), which aims to accelerate the multi-echo gradient echo (mGRE) pulse sequence for QSM. Our approach involves optimizing a Cartesian multi-echo k-space sampling pattern with a deep reconstruc- tion network. Next, this optimized sampling pattern was implemented in an mGRE sequence using Cartesian fan-beam k-space segmenting and ordering for prospective scans. Furthermore, we propose to insert a recur- rent temporal feature fusion module into the reconstruction network to capture signal redundancies along echo time. Our ablation studies show that both the optimized sampling pattern and proposed reconstruction strategy help improve the quality of the multi-echo image reconstructions. Generalization experiments show that LARO is robust on the test data with new pathologies and different sequence parameters. Our code is available at https://github.com/Jinwei1209/LARO-QSM.git . 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The emergence of the SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic and airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution has led to remarkably high demand for face masks. However, conventional respirators are intended for single use and made from nondegradable materials, causing serious concern for a plastic‐waste environmental crisis. Furthermore, these facemasks are weakened in humid conditions and difficult to decontaminate. Herein, a reusable, self‐sustaining, highly effective, and humidity‐resistant air filtration membrane with excellent particle‐removal efficiency is reported, based on highly controllable and stable piezoelectric electrospun poly (l‐lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers. The PLLA filter possesses a high filtration efficiency (>99% for PM 2.5 and>91% for PM 1.0) while providing a favorable pressure drop (91 Pa at normal breathing rate) for human breathing due to the piezoelectric charge naturally activated by respiration through the mask. The filter has a long, stable filtration performance and good humidity resistance, demonstrated by a minimal declination in the filtration performance of the nanofiber membrane after moisture exposure. The PLLA filter is reusable via common sterilization tools (i.e., an ultrasonic cleaning bath, autoclave, or microwave). Moreover, a prototype of a completely biodegradable PLLA nanofiber‐based facemask is fabricated and shown to decompose within 5 weeks in an accelerated degradation environment.

     
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