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  1. Abstract This paper presents a method to derive the virtual fields for identifying constitutive model parameters using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). The VFM is an approach to identify unknown constitutive parameters using deformation fields measured across a given volume of interest. The general principle for solving identification problems with the VFM is first to derive parametric stress field, where the stress components at any point depend on the unknown constitutive parameters, across the volume of interest from the measured deformation fields. Applying the principle of virtual work to the parametric stress fields, one can write scalar equations of the unknown parameters and solve the obtained system of equations to deduce the values of unknown parameters. However, no rules have been proposed to select the virtual fields in identification problems related to nonlinear elasticity and there are multiple strategies possible that can yield different results. In this work, we propose a systematic, robust and automatic approach to reconstruct the systems of scalar equations with the VFM. This approach is well suited to finite-element implementation and can be applied to any problem provided that full-field deformation data are available across a volume of interest. We also successfully demonstrate the feasibility ofmore »the novel approach by multiple numerical examples. Potential applications of the proposed approach are numerous in biomedical engineering where imaging techniques are commonly used to observe soft tissues and where alterations of material properties are markers of diseased states.« less
  2. Changes in structure and function of small muscular arteries play a major role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, a burgeoning public health challenge. Improved anatomically mimetic in vitro models of these microvessels are urgently needed because nonhuman vessels and previous models do not accurately recapitulate the microenvironment and architecture of the human microvascular wall. Here, we describe parallel biofabrication of photopatterned self-rolled biomimetic pulmonary arterial microvessels of tunable size and infrastructure. These microvessels feature anatomically accurate layering and patterning of aligned human smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix, and endothelial cells and exhibit notable increases in endothelial longevity and nitric oxide production. Computational image processing yielded high-resolution 3D perspectives of cells and proteins. Our studies provide a new paradigm for engineering multicellular tissues with precise 3D spatial positioning of multiple constituents in planar moieties, providing a biomimetic platform for investigation of microvascular pathobiology in human disease.