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  1. Saleem, M. (Ed.)
    NKX3.1’s downregulation is strongly associated with prostate cancer (PCa) initiation, progression, and CRPC development. Nevertheless, a clear disagreement exists between NKX3.1 protein and mRNA levels in PCa tissues, indicating that its regulation at a post-translational level plays a vital role. This study identified a strong negative relationship between NKX3.1 and LIMK2, which is critical in CRPC pathogenesis. We identified that NKX3.1 degradation by direct phosphorylation by LIMK2 is crucial for promoting oncogenicity in CRPC cells and in vivo. LIMK2 also downregulates NKX3.1 mRNA levels. In return, NKX3.1 promotes LIMK2’s ubiquitylation. Thus, the negative crosstalk between LIMK2-NKX3.1 regulates AR, ARv7, andmore »AKT signaling, promoting aggressive phenotypes. We also provide a new link between NKX3.1 and PTEN, both of which are downregulated by LIMK2. PTEN loss is strongly linked with NKX3.1 downregulation. As NKX3.1 is a prostate-specific tumor suppressor, preserving its levels by LIMK2 inhibition provides a tremendous opportunity for developing targeted therapy in CRPC. Further, as NKX3.1 downregulates AR transcription and inhibits AKT signaling, restoring its levels by inhibiting LIMK2 is expected to be especially beneficial by co-targeting two driver pathways in tandem, a highly desirable requisite for developing effective PCa therapeutics.« less