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    Searches for gravitational waves from compact binary mergers, which to date have reported ∼100 observations, have previously ignored binaries whose components are consistent with the mass of neutron stars (1–2 M⊙) and have high dimensionless spin >0.05. While previous searches targeted sources that are representative of observed neutron star binaries in the Galaxy, it is already known that neutron stars can regularly be spun up to a dimensionless spin of ∼0.4, and in principle reach up to ∼0.7 before breakup would occur. Furthermore, there may be primordial black hole binaries or exotic formation mechanisms to produce light black holes. In these cases, it is possible for the binary constituent to be spun up beyond that achievable by a neutron star. A single detection of this type of source would reveal a novel formation channel for compact binaries. To determine whether there is evidence for any such sources, we use pycbc to conduct a targeted search of LIGO and Virgo data for light compact objects with high spin. Our analysis detects previously known observations GW170817 and GW200115; however, we report no additional mergers. The most significant candidate, not previously known, is consistent with the noise distribution, and so we constrain the merger rate of spinning light binaries.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Two binary neutron star mergers, GW170817 and GW190425, have been detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo. These signals were detected by matched-filter searches that assume that the star’s orbit has circularized by the time their gravitational-wave emission is observable. This suggests that their eccentricity is low, but full parameter estimation of their eccentricity has not yet been performed. We use gravitational-wave observations to measure the eccentricity of GW170817 and GW190425. We find that the eccentricity at a gravitational-wave frequency of 10 Hz is e ≤ 0.024 and e ≤ 0.048 for GW170817 and GW190425, respectively (90 per cent confidence). This is consistent with the binaries being formed in the field, as such systems are expected to have circularized to e ≤ 10−4 by the time they reach the LIGO–Virgo band. Our constraint is a factor of 2 smaller that an estimate based on GW170817 being detected by searches that neglect eccentricity. However, we caution that we find significant prior dependence in our limits, suggesting that there is limited information in the signals. We note that other techniques used to constrain binary neutron star eccentricity without full parameter estimation may miss degeneracies in the waveform, and that for future signals, it will be important to perform full parameter estimation with accurate waveform templates. 
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  3. Abstract

    This paper presents a parameter estimation analysis of the seven binary black hole mergers—GW170104, GW170608, GW170729, GW170809, GW170814, GW170818, and GW170823—detected during the second observing run of the Advanced LIGO and Virgo observatories using the gravitational-wave open data. We describe the methodology for parameter estimation of compact binaries using gravitational-wave data, and we present the posterior distributions of the inferred astrophysical parameters. We release our samples of the posterior probability density function with tutorials on using and replicating our results presented in this paper.

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