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  1. We present an overview of GProM, a generic provenance middleware for relational databases. The sys- tem supports diverse provenance and annotation management tasks through query instrumentation, i.e., compiling a declarative frontend language with provenance-specific features into the query language of a backend database system. In addition to introducing GProM, we also discuss research contributions related to GProM including the first provenance model and capture mechanism for transaction prove- nance, a unified framework for answering why- and why-not provenance questions, and provenance- aware query optimization. Furthermore, by means of the example of post-mortem debugging of transac- tions, we demonstrate how novel applications of provenance are made possible by GProM. 
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  2. The rigid schemas of classical relational databases help users in specifying queries and inform the storage organization of data. However, the advantages of schemas come at a high upfront cost through schema and ETL process design. In this work, we propose a new paradigm where the database system takes a more active role in schema development and data integration. We refer to this approach as adaptive schema databases (ASDs). An ASD ingests semi-structured or unstructured data directly using a pluggable combination of extraction and data integration techniques. Over time it discovers and adapts schemas for the ingested data using information provided by data integration and information extraction techniques, as well as from queries and user-feedback. In contrast to relational databases, ASDs maintain multiple schema workspaces that represent individualized views over the data, which are fine-tuned to the needs of a particular user or group of users. A novel aspect of ASDs is that probabilistic database techniques are used to encode ambiguity in automatically generated data extraction workflows and in generated schemas. ASDs can provide users with context-dependent feedback on the quality of a schema, both in terms of its ability to satisfy a user's queries, and the quality of the resulting answers. We outline our vision for ASDs, and present a proof of concept implementation as part of the Mimir probabilistic data curation system. 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    Results are presented from a search for CP violation in top quark pair production, using proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data used for this analysis consist of final states with two charged leptons collected by the CMS experiment, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb1. The search uses two observables,$$ \mathcal{O} $$O1and$$ \mathcal{O} $$O3, which are Lorentz scalars. The observable$$ \mathcal{O} $$O1is constructed from the four-momenta of the charged leptons and the reconstructed top quarks, while$$ \mathcal{O} $$O3consists of the four-momenta of the charged leptons and the b quarks originating from the top quarks. Asymmetries in these observables are sensitive to CP violation, and their measurement is used to determine the chromoelectric dipole moment of the top quark. The results are consistent with the expectation from the standard model.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Measurements of the associated production of a W boson and a charm ($${\text {c}}$$c) quark in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8$$\,\text {TeV}$$TeVare reported. The analysis uses a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 19.7$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1collected by the CMS detector at the LHC. The W bosons are identified through their leptonic decays to an electron or a muon, and a neutrino. Charm quark jets are selected using distinctive signatures of charm hadron decays. The product of the cross section and branching fraction$$\sigma (\text {p}\text {p}\rightarrow \text {W}+ {\text {c}}+ \text {X}) {\mathcal {B}}(\text {W}\rightarrow \ell \upnu )$$σ(ppW+c+X)B(Wν), where$$\ell = \text {e}$$=eor$$\upmu $$μ, and the cross section ratio$$\sigma (\text {p}\text {p}\rightarrow {{\text {W}}^{+} + \bar{{\text {c}}} + \text {X}}) / \sigma (\text {p}\text {p}\rightarrow {{\text {W}}^{-} + {\text {c}}+ \text {X}})$$σ(ppW++c¯+X)/σ(ppW-+c+X)are measured in a fiducial volume and differentially as functions of the pseudorapidity and of the transverse momentum of the lepton from the W boson decay. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. The impact of these measurements on the determination of the strange quark distribution is assessed.

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