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  1. Abstract

    We propose an architecture of quantum-error-correction-based quantum repeaters that combines techniques used in discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information. Specifically, we propose to encode the transmitted qubits in a concatenated code consisting of two levels. On the first level we use a continuous-variable GKP code encoding the qubit in a single bosonic mode. On the second level we use a small discrete-variable code. Such an architecture has two important features. Firstly, errors on each of the two levels are corrected in repeaters of two different types. This enables for achieving performance needed in practical scenarios with a reduced cost with respect to an architecture for which all repeaters are the same. Secondly, the use of continuous-variable GKP code on the lower level generates additional analog information which enhances the error-correcting capabilities of the second-level code such that long-distance communication becomes possible with encodings consisting of only four or seven optical modes.

  2. Understanding the computational power of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices is of both fundamental and practical importance to quantum information science. Here, we address the question of whether error-uncorrected noisy quantum computers can provide computational advantage over classical computers. Specifically, we study noisy random circuit sampling in one dimension (or 1D noisy RCS) as a simple model for exploring the effects of noise on the computational power of a noisy quantum device. In particular, we simulate the real-time dynamics of 1D noisy random quantum circuits via matrix product operators (MPOs) and characterize the computational power of the 1D noisy quantum system by using a metric we call MPO entanglement entropy. The latter metric is chosen because it determines the cost of classical MPO simulation. We numerically demonstrate that for the two-qubit gate error rates we considered, there exists a characteristic system size above which adding more qubits does not bring about an exponential growth of the cost of classical MPO simulation of 1D noisy systems. Specifically, we show that above the characteristic system size, there is an optimal circuit depth, independent of the system size, where the MPO entanglement entropy is maximized. Most importantly, the maximum achievable MPO entanglement entropymore »is bounded by a constant that depends only on the gate error rate, not on the system size. We also provide a heuristic analysis to get the scaling of the maximum achievable MPO entanglement entropy as a function of the gate error rate. The obtained scaling suggests that although the cost of MPO simulation does not increase exponentially in the system size above a certain characteristic system size, it does increase exponentially as the gate error rate decreases, possibly making classical simulation practically not feasible even with state-of-the-art supercomputers.« less