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  1. In recent years, the implementation of the demand response (DR) programs in the power system's scheduling and operation is increased. DR is used to improve the consumers' and power providers' economic condition. That said, optimal power flow is a fundamental concept in the power system operation and control. The impact of exploiting DR programs in the power management of the systems is of significant importance. In this paper, the effect of time-based DR programs on the cost of 24-hour operation of a power system is presented. The effect of the time of use and real-time pricing programs with different participation factors are investigated. In addition, the system's operation cost is studied to analyze the DR programs' role in the current power grids. For this aim, the 14-bus IEEE test system is used to properly implement and simulate the proposed approach.
  2. This paper presents an optimization approach based on mixed-integer programming (MIP) to maximize the profit of the Microgrid (MG) while minimizing the risk in profit (RIP) in the presence of demand response program (DRP). RIP is defined as the risk of gaining less profit from the desired profit values. The uncertainties associated with the RESs and loads are modeled using normal, Beta, and Weibull distribution functions. The simulation studies are performed in GAMS and MATLAB for 5 random days of a year. Although DRP increases the total profit of the MG, it can also increase the risk. The simulation results show that RIP is reduced when downside risk constraint (DRC) is considered along with DRP implementation. Considering DRC significantly reduces the percentage of the risk while slightly decreasinz the profit.