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  1. Abstract

    A thorough understanding of neutrino–nucleus scattering physics is crucial for the successful execution of the entire US neutrino physics program. Neutrino–nucleus interaction constitutes one of the biggest systematic uncertainties in neutrino experiments—both at intermediate energies affecting long-baseline deep underground neutrino experiment, as well as at low energies affecting coherent scattering neutrino program—and could well be the difference between achieving or missing discovery level precision. To this end, electron–nucleus scattering experiments provide vital information to test, assess and validate different nuclear models and event generators intended to test, assess and validate different nuclear models and event generators intended to be used in neutrino experiments. Similarly, for the low-energy neutrino program revolving around the coherent elastic neutrino–nucleus scattering (CEvNS) physics at stopped pion sources, such as at ORNL, the main source of uncertainty in the evaluation of the CEvNS cross section is driven by the underlying nuclear structure, embedded in the weak form factor, of the target nucleus. To this end, parity-violating electron scattering (PVES) experiments, utilizing polarized electron beams, provide vital model-independent information in determining weak form factors. This information is vital in achieving a percent level precision needed to disentangle new physics signals from the standard model expected CEvNS rate. In this white paper, we highlight connections between electron- and neutrino–nucleus scattering physics at energies ranging from 10 s of MeV to a few GeV, review the status of ongoing and planned electron scattering experiments, identify gaps, and lay out a path forward that benefits the neutrino community. We also highlight the systemic challenges with respect to the divide between the nuclear and high-energy physics communities and funding that presents additional hurdles in mobilizing these connections to the benefit of neutrino programs.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. null (Ed.)
  5. We have measured new observables based on the final state kinematic imbalances in the mesonless production of νμ + A → μ− + p + X in the MINERνA tracker. Components of the muon-proton momentum imbalances parallel (δpTy) and perpendicular (δpTx) to the momentum transfer in the transverse plane are found to be sensitive to the nuclear effects such as Fermi motion, binding energy, and non-quasielastic (QE) contributions. The QE peak location in δpTy is particularly sensitive to the binding energy. Differential cross sections are compared to predictions from different neutrino interaction models. The Fermi gas models presented in this study cannot simultaneously describe features such as QE peak location, width, and the non-QE events contributing to the signal process. Correcting the genie’s binding energy implementation according to theory causes better agreement with data. Hints of proton left-right asymmetry are observed in δpTx. Better modeling of the binding energy can reduce the bias in neutrino energy reconstruction, and these observables can be applied in current and future experiments to better constrain nuclear effects. 
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