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  1. Abstract Motivation Cancer heterogeneity is observed at multiple biological levels. To improve our understanding of these differences and their relevance in medicine, approaches to link organ- and tissue-level information from diagnostic images and cellular-level information from genomics are needed. However, these ‘radiogenomic’ studies often use linear or shallow models, depend on feature selection, or consider one gene at a time to map images to genes. Moreover, no study has systematically attempted to understand the molecular basis of imaging traits based on the interpretation of what the neural network has learned. These studies are thus limited in their ability to understand the transcriptomic drivers of imaging traits, which could provide additional context for determining clinical outcomes. Results We present a neural network-based approach that takes high-dimensional gene expression data as input and performs non-linear mapping to an imaging trait. To interpret the models, we propose gene masking and gene saliency to extract learned relationships from radiogenomic neural networks. In glioblastoma patients, our models outperformed comparable classifiers (>0.10 AUC) and our interpretation methods were validated using a similar model to identify known relationships between genes and molecular subtypes. We found that tumor imaging traits had specific transcription patterns, e.g. edema and genes related to cellular invasion, and 10 radiogenomic traits were significantly predictive of survival. We demonstrate that neural networks can model transcriptomic heterogeneity to reflect differences in imaging and can be used to derive radiogenomic traits with clinical value. Availability and implementation Contact Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 
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  2. The growing amount of longitudinal data for a large population of patients has necessitated the application of algorithms that can discover patterns that inform patient management. This study demonstrates how temporal patterns generated from a combination of clinical and imaging measurements improve residual survival prediction in glioblastoma patients. Temporal patterns were identified with sequential pattern mining using data from 304 patients. Along with patient covariates, the patterns were incorporated as features in logistic regression models to predict 2-, 6-, or 9-month residual survival at each visit. The modeling approach that included temporal patterns achieved test performances of 0.820, 0.785, and 0.783 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting 2-, 6-, and 9-month residual survival, respectively. This approach significantly outperformed models that used tumor volume alone (p < 0.001) or tumor volume combined with patient covariates (p < 0.001) in training. Temporal patterns involving an increase in tumor volume above 122 mm3/day, a decrease in KPS across multiple visits, moderate neurologic symptoms, and worsening overall neurologic function suggested lower residual survival. These patterns are readily interpretable and found to be consistent with known prognostic indicators, suggesting they can provide early indicators to clinicians of changes in patient state that inform management decisions. 
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