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  1. We present a holographic imaging approach for the case in which a single source-detector pair is used to scan a sample. The source-detector pair collects intensity-only data at different frequencies and positions. By using an appropriate illumination strategy, we recover field cross correlations over different frequencies for each scan location. The problem is that these field cross correlations are asynchronized, so they have to be aligned first in order to image coherently. This is the main result of the paper: a simple algorithm to synchronize field cross correlations at different locations. Thus, one can recover full field data up to a global phase that is common to all scan locations. The recovered data are, then, coherent over space and frequency so they can be used to form high-resolution three-dimensional images. Imaging with intensity-only data is therefore as good as coherent imaging with full data. In addition, we use anℓ<#comment/>1-norm minimization algorithm that promotes the low dimensional structure of the images, allowing for deep high-resolution imaging.

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  2. Abstract The balloon-borne ANITA [1] experiment is designed to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos via radio emissions produced by in-ice showers. Although initially purposed for interactions within the Antarctic ice sheet, ANITA also demonstrated the ability to self-trigger on radio emissions from ultra-high energy charged cosmic rays [2] (CR) interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. For showers produced above the Antarctic ice sheet, reflection of the down-coming radio signals at the Antarctic surface should result in a polarity inversion prior to subsequent observation at the ∼35–40 km altitude ANITA gondola. Based on data taken during the ANITA-1 and ANITA-3 flights, ANITA published two anomalous instances of upcoming cosmic-rays with measured polarity opposite the remaining sample of ∼50 UHECR signals [3, 4]. The steep observed upwards incidence angles (25–30 degrees relative to the horizontal) require non-Standard Model physics if these events are due to in-ice neutrino interactions, as the Standard Model cross-section would otherwise prohibit neutrinos from penetrating the long required chord of Earth. Shoemaker et al. [5] posit that glaciological effects may explain the steep observed anomalous events. We herein consider the scenarios offered by Shoemaker et al. and find them to be disfavored by extant ANITA and HiCal experimental data. We note that the recent report of four additional near-horizon anomalous ANITA-4 events [6], at >3σ significance, are incompatible with their model, which requires significant signal transmission into the ice. 
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  3. Abstract Over the last 25 years, radiowave detection of neutrino-generated signals, using cold polar ice as the neutrino target, has emerged as perhaps the most promising technique for detection of extragalactic ultra-high energy neutrinos (corresponding to neutrino energies in excess of 0.01 Joules, or 10 17 electron volts). During the summer of 2021 and in tandem with the initial deployment of the Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland (RNO-G), we conducted radioglaciological measurements at Summit Station, Greenland to refine our understanding of the ice target. We report the result of one such measurement, the radio-frequency electric field attenuation length $L_\alpha$ . We find an approximately linear dependence of $L_\alpha$ on frequency with the best fit of the average field attenuation for the upper 1500 m of ice: $\langle L_\alpha \rangle = ( ( 1154 \pm 121) - ( 0.81 \pm 0.14) \, ( \nu /{\rm MHz}) ) \,{\rm m}$ for frequencies ν ∈ [145 − 350] MHz. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  5. Abstract

    We present the results of a search for 10–1000 GeV neutrinos from 2268 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) over 8 yr of IceCube-DeepCore data. This work probes burst physics below the photosphere where electromagnetic radiation cannot escape. Neutrinos of tens of giga electronvolts are predicted in sub-photospheric collision of free-streaming neutrons with bulk-jet protons. In a first analysis, we searched for the most significant neutrino-GRB coincidence using six overlapping time windows centered on the prompt phase of each GRB. In a second analysis, we conducted a search for a group of GRBs, each individually too weak to be detectable, but potentially significant when combined. No evidence of neutrino emission is found for either analysis. The most significant neutrino coincidence is for Fermi-GBM GRB bn 140807500, with ap-value of 0.097 corrected for all trials. The binomial test used to search for a group of GRBs had ap-value of 0.65 after all trial corrections. The binomial test found a group consisting only of GRB bn 140807500 and no additional GRBs. The neutrino limits of this work complement those obtained by IceCube at tera electronvolt to peta electronvolt energies. We compare our findings for the large set of GRBs as well as GRB 221009A to the sub-photospheric neutron-proton collision model and find that GRB 221009A provides the most constraining limit on baryon loading. For a jet Lorentz factor of 300 (800), the baryon loading on GRB 221009A is lower than 3.85 (2.13) at a 90% confidence level.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 22, 2025
  6. Abstract

    Neutrino flares in the sky are searched for in data collected by IceCube between 2011 and 2021 May. This data set contains cascade-like events originating from charged-current electron neutrino and tau neutrino interactions and all-flavor neutral-current interactions. IceCube’s previous all-sky searches for neutrino flares used data sets consisting of track-like events originating from charged-current muon neutrino interactions. The cascade data set is statistically independent of the track data sets, and while inferior in angular resolution, the low-background nature makes it competitive and complementary to previous searches. No statistically significant flare of neutrino emission was observed in an all-sky scan. Upper limits are calculated on neutrino flares of varying duration from 1 hr to 100 days. Furthermore, constraints on the contribution of these flares to the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux are presented, showing that multiple unresolved transient sources may contribute to the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux.

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  7. Abstract

    Since summer 2021, the Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland (RNO-G) is searching for astrophysical neutrinos at energies$${>10}$$>10 PeV by detecting the radio emission from particle showers in the ice around Summit Station, Greenland. We present an extensive simulation study that shows how RNO-G will be able to measure the energy of such particle cascades, which will in turn be used to estimate the energy of the incoming neutrino that caused them. The location of the neutrino interaction is determined using the differences in arrival times between channels and the electric field of the radio signal is reconstructed using a novel approach based on Information Field Theory. Based on these properties, the shower energy can be estimated. We show that this method can achieve an uncertainty of 13% on the logarithm of the shower energy after modest quality cuts and estimate how this can constrain the energy of the neutrino. The method presented in this paper is applicable to all similar radio neutrino detectors, such as the proposed radio array of IceCube-Gen2.

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