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  1. Abstract

    The recently discovered kagome superconductorsAV3Sb5(A= K, Rb, Cs) exhibit unusual charge-density-wave (CDW) orders with time-reversal and rotational symmetry breaking. One of the most crucial unresolved issues is identifying the symmetry of the superconductivity that develops inside the CDW phase. Theory predicts a variety of unconventional superconducting symmetries with sign-changing and chiral order parameters. Experimentally, however, superconducting phase information inAV3Sb5is still lacking. Here we report the impurity effects in CsV3Sb5using electron irradiation as a phase-sensitive probe of superconductivity. Our magnetic penetration depth measurements reveal that with increasing impurities, an anisotropic fully-gapped state changes to an isotropic full-gap state without passing through a nodal state. Furthermore, transport measurements under pressure show that the double superconducting dome in the pressure-temperature phase diagram survives against sufficient impurities. These results support that CsV3Sb5is a non-chiral, anisotropics-wave superconductor with no sign change both at ambient and under pressure.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. null (Ed.)
    Echinoderms are an exceptional group of bilaterians that develop pentameral adult symmetry from a bilaterally symmetric larva. However, the genetic basis in evolution and development of this unique transformation remains to be clarified. Here we report newly sequenced genomes, developmental transcriptomes, and proteomes of diverse echinoderms including the green sea urchin (L. variegatus), a sea cucumber (A. japonicus), and with particular emphasis on a sister group of the earliest-diverged echinoderms, the feather star (A. japonica). We learned that the last common ancestor of echinoderms retained a well-organized Hox cluster reminiscent of the hemichordate, and had gene sets involved in endoskeleton development. Further, unlike in other animal groups, the most conserved developmental stages were not at the body plan establishing phase, and genes normally involved in bilaterality appear to function in pentameric axis development. These results enhance our understanding of the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes almost 500 Mya. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  6. Samples of the carbonaceous asteroid Ryugu were brought to Earth by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. We analyzed seventeen Ryugu samples measuring 1-8 mm. CO 2 -bearing water inclusions are present within a pyrrhotite crystal, indicating that Ryugu’s parent asteroid formed in the outer Solar System. The samples contain low abundances of materials that formed at high temperatures, such as chondrules and Ca, Al-rich inclusions. The samples are rich in phyllosilicates and carbonates, which formed by aqueous alteration reactions at low temperature, high pH, and water/rock ratios < 1 (by mass). Less altered fragments contain olivine, pyroxene, amorphous silicates, calcite, and phosphide. Numerical simulations, based on the mineralogical and physical properties of the samples, indicate Ryugu’s parent body formed ~ 2 million years after the beginning of Solar System formation. 
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024