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  1. L. Cromarty, R. Shirwaiker (Ed.)
    This study investigates the renewable energy adoption across regions covered by Independent System Operators (ISOs) in the U.S. The study employed a deterministic model in the form of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to determine the performance of ten ISO regions over a five-year period from 2013 to 2017. Inputs into the model include the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) targets, fossil fuel capacity additions and the costs of capacity additions. Outputs from the model include renewable energy capacity additions and CO2 emissions per MWh of generated electricity. The results show the regions covered by CAISO, ERCOT, NE-ISO, SPP and the NON-ISO to be on the efficient frontier. For the regions not on the efficient frontier, the results identify their limitations and provide projections both for reductions in excess inputs and improvements in outputs to be on the efficient frontier. For example, we see that the regions covered by NY-ISO and PJM would require, on average, renewable energy capacity expansions of 593.65MW and 230.24MW, respectively, to be on the efficient frontier. These regions would require their average fossil capacity expansions to be limited to 234.83MW and 365.4MW respectively. These findings offer some guidance on approaches to improving the performance of these markets.