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  1. Timing side channels have been used to extract cryptographic keys and sensitive documents even from trusted enclaves. Specifically, cache side channels created by reuse of shared code or data in the memory hierarchy have been exploited by several known attacks, e.g., evict+reload for recovering an RSA key and Spectre variants for leaking speculatively loaded data.In this paper, we present TimeCache, a cache design that incorporates knowledge of prior cache line access to eliminate cache side channels due to reuse of shared software (code and data). Our goal is to retain the benefits of a shared cache of allowing each process access to the entire cache and of cache occupancy by a single copy of shared software. We achieve our goal by implementing per-process cache line visibility so that the processes do not benefit from cached data brought in by another process until they have incurred a corresponding miss penalty. Our design achieves low overhead by using a novel combination of timestamps and a hardware design to allow efficient parallel comparisons of the timestamps. The solution works at all the cache levels without the need to limit the number of security domains, and defends against an attacker process running on themore »same core, on a another hyperthread, or on another core.Our implementation in the gem5 simulator demonstrates that the system is able to defend against RSA key extraction. We evaluate performance using SPEC2006 and PARSEC and observe the overhead of TimeCache to be 1.13% on average. Delay due to first access misses adds the majority of the overhead, with the security context bookkeeping incurred at the time of a context switch contributing 0.02% of the 1.13%.« less