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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Antarctica’s continental margins pose an unknown submarine landslide-generated tsunami risk to Southern Hemisphere populations and infrastructure. Understanding the factors driving slope failure is essential to assessing future geohazards. Here, we present a multidisciplinary study of a major submarine landslide complex along the eastern Ross Sea continental slope (Antarctica) that identifies preconditioning factors and failure mechanisms. Weak layers, identified beneath three submarine landslides, consist of distinct packages of interbedded Miocene- to Pliocene-age diatom oozes and glaciomarine diamicts. The observed lithological differences, which arise from glacial to interglacial variations in biological productivity, ice proximity, and ocean circulation, caused changes in sediment deposition that inherently preconditioned slope failure. These recurrent Antarctic submarine landslides were likely triggered by seismicity associated with glacioisostatic readjustment, leading to failure within the preconditioned weak layers. Ongoing climate warming and ice retreat may increase regional glacioisostatic seismicity, triggering Antarctic submarine landslides. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    High‐pressure rocks from the island of Ios in the Greek Cyclades were examined to resolve the P–T conditions reached during subduction of the two distinct lithotectonic units that are separated by the South Cycladic Shear Zone (SCSZ)—the footwall complex composed of Hercynian basement gneisses, schists and amphibolites, and the hangingwall complex composed of blueschists and eclogites. A combination of elastic tensor quartz inclusion in garnet (QuiG) barometry and Zr‐in‐rutile (ZiR) trace element thermometry was used to constrain minimum garnet growth conditions. Garnet from the hangingwall (blueschist) unit record formation pressures that range from 1.5 to 1.9 GPa and garnet from the footwall basement complex record garnet formation pressures of 1.65–2.05 GPa. ZiR thermometry on rutile inclusions within garnet establishes the minimum temperature for garnet formation to be ~480–500°C. That is, there is no evidence in the QuiG and ZiR results that the rocks of the blueschist hangingwall and basement experienced different metamorphic histories during subduction. This is the first reported observation of blueschist facies metamorphism in the Hercynian basement complex. A model is proposed in which initial subduction occurred along a relatively shallow P–T trajectory of ~11°C/km and then transitioned to a steeper, nearly isothermal trajectory at a depth of ~45 km reaching similar peak metamorphic conditions of ~500–525°C at 2.0 GPa for all samples. Such a change in the subduction path could be accomplished by either an increase in the rate of subduction or an increase in the angle of the subduction zone. The present juxtaposition of samples with contrasting mineral assemblages and garnet growth histories is interpreted to have arisen from differences in bulk compositions and variations in the preservation of high‐pressure prograde mineral assemblages during exhumation. The existence of similar P–T conditions and prograde paths in the two units does not require that the rocks were all metamorphosed at the same time and that the SCSZ experienced little movement. Rather, it is suggested that the two units experienced prograde and peak metamorphism at different times and were subsequently juxtaposed along the SCSZ.

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  4. Image formation by Fresnel diffraction utilizes both absorption and phase-contrast to measure electron density profiles. The low spatial and spectral coherence requirements allow the technique to be performed with a laser-produced x-ray source coupled with a narrow slit. This makes it an excellent candidate for probing interfaces between materials at extreme conditions, which can only be generated at large-scale laser or pulsed power facilities. Here, we present the results from a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating an effective ∼2 μm laser-generated source at the OMEGA Laser Facility. This was achieved using slits of 1 × 30  μm 2 and 2 × 40  μm 2 geometry, which were milled into 30 μm thick Ta plates. Combining these slits with a vanadium He-like 5.2 keV source created a 1D imaging system capable of micrometer-scale resolution. The principal obstacles to achieving an effective 1 μm source are the slit tilt and taper—where the use of a tapered slit is necessary to increase the alignment tolerance. We demonstrate an effective source size by imaging a 2 ± 0.2 μm radius tungsten wire. 
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  5. An x-ray Fresnel diffractive radiography platform was designed for use at the National Ignition Facility. It will enable measurements of micron-scale changes in the density gradients across an interface between isochorically heated warm dense matter materials, the evolution of which is driven primarily through thermal conductivity and mutual diffusion. We use 4.75 keV Ti K-shell x-ray emission to heat a 1000 μm diameter plastic cylinder, with a central 30 μm diameter channel filled with liquid D2, up to 8 eV. This leads to a cylindrical implosion of the liquid D2 column, compressing it to ∼2.3 g/cm3. After pressure equilibration, the location of the D2/plastic interface remains steady for several nanoseconds, which enables us to track density gradient changes across the material interface with high precision. For radiography, we use Cu He-α x rays at 8.3 keV. Using a slit aperture of only 1 μm width increases the spatial coherence of the source, giving rise to significant diffraction features in the radiography signal, in addition to the refraction enhancement, which further increases its sensitivity to density scale length changes at the D2/plastic interface.

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  6. Twisted stalks are morphologically unique bacterial extracellular organo-metallic structures containing Fe(III) oxyhydroxides that are produced by microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizers belonging to the Betaproteobacteria and Zetaproteobacteria. Understanding the underlying genetic and physiological mechanisms of stalk formation is of great interest based on their potential as novel biogenic nanomaterials and their relevance as putative biomarkers for microbial Fe(II) oxidation on ancient Earth. Despite the recognition of these special biominerals for over 150 years, the genetic foundation for the stalk phenotype has remained unresolved. Here we present a candidate gene cluster for the biosynthesis and secretion of the stalk organic matrix that we identified with a trait-based analyses of a pan-genome comprising 16 Zetaproteobacteria isolate genomes. The “ s talk f ormation in Z etaproteobacteria” (sfz) cluster comprises six genes ( sfz1-sfz6 ), of which sfz1 and sfz2 were predicted with functions in exopolysaccharide synthesis, regulation, and export, sfz4 and sfz6 with functions in cell wall synthesis manipulation and carbohydrate hydrolysis, and sfz3 and sfz5 with unknown functions. The stalk-forming Betaproteobacteria Ferriphaselus R-1 and OYT-1, as well as dread-forming Zetaproteobacteria Mariprofundus aestuarium CP-5 and Mariprofundus ferrinatatus CP-8 contain distant sfz gene homologs, whereas stalk-less Zetaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria lack the entire gene cluster. Our pan-genome analysis further revealed a significant enrichment of clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) across all Zetaproteobacteria isolate genomes that are associated with the regulation of a switch between sessile and motile growth controlled by the intracellular signaling molecule c-di-GMP. Potential interactions between stalk-former unique transcription factor genes, sfz genes, and c-di-GMP point toward a c-di-GMP regulated surface attachment function of stalks during sessile growth. 
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  7. Abstract

    Mating signals of insects do not only attract their intended receivers but also eavesdropping parasites and/or predators. As a result, an arms race between the host or prey and the eavesdropper ensues, propelling their co‐evolution and potentially contributing to their diversification. Here, we investigate the species interaction of the flyOrmia lineifronsthat usesNeoconocephaluskatydids as hosts for its lethal larvae. We surveyed the host use ofOlineifronsover a 2‐year period in Kentucky and determined which species were used as hosts, the parasitism rate of each katydid host, and how many generations per year the fly displays. Four of the six surveyedNeoconocephalusspecies were parasitized and killed (Neoconocephalus triops,Neoconocephalus velox,Neoconocephalus robustus,Neoconocephalus nebrascensis) byO. lineifrons. Three of these katydid species were previously not known to be hosts ofO. lineifrons. Two of the six species were not parasitized in either year (Neoconocephalus bivocatus,Neoconocephalus retusus) even thoughO. lineifronswas active when they called. The parasitism rate of each host peaked between 38% and 100% across years. The fly had three distinct generations per year, and each generation used different katydid species as hosts. We discuss the importance of the synchronization of the three fly generations with their hosts as well as potential counteradaptations of the hosts. These semi‐independent arms races could provide valuable insights in the diversification of the hosts and their parasitoid.

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