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  1. Abstract

    A prominent approach to solving combinatorial optimization problems on parallel hardware is Ising machines, i.e., hardware implementations of networks of interacting binary spin variables. Most Ising machines leverage second-order interactions although important classes of optimization problems, such as satisfiability problems, map more seamlessly to Ising networks with higher-order interactions. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order Ising machines can solve satisfiability problems more resource-efficiently in terms of the number of spin variables and their connections when compared to traditional second-order Ising machines. Further, our results show on a benchmark dataset of Booleank-satisfiability problems that higher-order Ising machines implemented with coupled oscillators rapidly find solutions that are better than second-order Ising machines, thus, improving the current state-of-the-art for Ising machines.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. We investigate the task of retrieving information from compositional distributed representations formed by hyperdimensional computing/vector symbolic architectures and present novel techniques that achieve new information rate bounds. First, we provide an overview of the decoding techniques that can be used to approach the retrieval task. The techniques are categorized into four groups. We then evaluate the considered techniques in several settings that involve, for example, inclusion of external noise and storage elements with reduced precision. In particular, we find that the decoding techniques from the sparse coding and compressed sensing literature (rarely used for hyperdimensional computing/vector symbolic architectures) are also well suited for decoding information from the compositional distributed representations.Combining these decoding techniqueswith interference cancellation ideas from communications improves previously reported bounds (Hersche et al., 2021) of the information rate of the distributed representations from 1.20 to 1.40 bits per dimension for smaller codebooks and from 0.60 to 1.26 bits per dimension for larger codebooks. 
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  3. Abstract We describe a stochastic, dynamical system capable of inference and learning in a probabilistic latent variable model. The most challenging problem in such models—sampling the posterior distribution over latent variables—is proposed to be solved by harnessing natural sources of stochasticity inherent in electronic and neural systems. We demonstrate this idea for a sparse coding model by deriving a continuous-time equation for inferring its latent variables via Langevin dynamics. The model parameters are learned by simultaneously evolving according to another continuous-time equation, thus bypassing the need for digital accumulators or a global clock. Moreover, we show that Langevin dynamics lead to an efficient procedure for sampling from the posterior distribution in the L0 sparse regime, where latent variables are encouraged to be set to zero as opposed to having a small L1 norm. This allows the model to properly incorporate the notion of sparsity rather than having to resort to a relaxed version of sparsity to make optimization tractable. Simulations of the proposed dynamical system on both synthetic and natural image data sets demonstrate that the model is capable of probabilistically correct inference, enabling learning of the dictionary as well as parameters of the prior. 
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  4. We describe the design and performance of a high-fidelity wearable head-, body-, and eye-tracking system that offers significant improvement over previous such devices. This device’s sensors include a binocular eye tracker, an RGB-D scene camera, a high-frame-rate scene camera, and two visual odometry sensors, for a total of ten cameras, which we synchronize and record from with a data rate of over 700 MB/s. The sensors are operated by a mini-PC optimized for fast data collection, and powered by a small battery pack. The device records a subject’s eye, head, and body positions, simultaneously with RGB and depth data from the subject’s visual environment, measured with high spatial and temporal resolution. The headset weighs only 1.4 kg, and the backpack with batteries 3.9 kg. The device can be comfortably worn by the subject, allowing a high degree of mobility. Together, this system overcomes many limitations of previous such systems, allowing high-fidelity characterization of the dynamics of natural vision. 
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  5. This article reviews recent progress in the development of the computing framework Vector Symbolic Architectures (also known as Hyperdimensional Computing). This framework is well suited for implementation in stochastic, nanoscale hardware and it naturally expresses the types of cognitive operations required for Artificial Intelligence (AI). We demonstrate in this article that the ring-like algebraic structure of Vector Symbolic Architectures offers simple but powerful operations on highdimensional vectors that can support all data structures and manipulations relevant in modern computing. In addition, we illustrate the distinguishing feature of Vector Symbolic Architectures, “computing in superposition,” which sets it apart from conventional computing. This latter property opens the door to efficient solutions to the difficult combinatorial search problems inherent in AI applications. Vector Symbolic Architectures are Turing complete, as we show, and we see them acting as a framework for computing with distributed representations in myriad AI settings. This paper serves as a reference for computer architects by illustrating techniques and philosophy of VSAs for distributed computing and relevance to emerging computing hardware, such as neuromorphic computing. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Vector space models for symbolic processing that encode symbols by random vectors have been proposed in cognitive science and connectionist communities under the names Vector Symbolic Architecture (VSA), and, synonymously, Hyperdimensional (HD) computing. In this paper, we generalize VSAs to function spaces by mapping continuous-valued data into a vector space such that the inner product between the representations of any two data points represents a similarity kernel. By analogy to VSA, we call this new function encoding and computing framework Vector Function Architecture (VFA). In VFAs, vectors can represent individual data points as well as elements of a function space (a reproducing kernel Hilbert space). The algebraic vector operations, inherited from VSA, correspond to well-defined operations in function space. Furthermore, we study a previously proposed method for encoding continuous data, fractional power encoding (FPE), which uses exponentiation of a random base vector to produce randomized representations of data points and fulfills the kernel properties for inducing a VFA. We show that the distribution from which elements of the base vector are sampled determines the shape of the FPE kernel, which in turn induces a VFA for computing with band-limited functions. In particular, VFAs provide an algebraic framework for implementing large-scale kernel machines with random features, extending Rahimi and Recht, 2007. Finally, we demonstrate several applications of VFA models to problems in image recognition, density estimation and nonlinear regression. Our analyses and results suggest that VFAs constitute a powerful new framework for representing and manipulating functions in distributed neural systems, with myriad applications in artificial intelligence. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    The ability to encode and manipulate data structures with distributed neural representations could qualitatively enhance the capabilities of traditional neural networks by supporting rule-based symbolic reasoning, a central property of cognition. Here we show how this may be accomplished within the framework of Vector Symbolic Architectures (VSAs) (Plate, 1991; Gayler, 1998; Kanerva, 1996), whereby data structures are encoded by combining high-dimensional vectors with operations that together form an algebra on the space of distributed representations. In particular, we propose an efficient solution to a hard combinatorial search problem that arises when decoding elements of a VSA data structure: the factorization of products of multiple codevectors. Our proposed algorithm, called a resonator network, is a new type of recurrent neural network that interleaves VSA multiplication operations and pattern completion. We show in two examples—parsing of a tree-like data structure and parsing of a visual scene—how the factorization problem arises and how the resonator network can solve it. More broadly, resonator networks open the possibility of applying VSAs to myriad artificial intelligence problems in real-world domains. The companion article in this issue (Kent, Frady, Sommer, & Olshausen, 2020) presents a rigorous analysis and evaluation of the performance of resonator networks, showing it outperforms alternative approaches. 
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    We develop theoretical foundations of resonator networks, a new type of recurrent neural network introduced in Frady, Kent, Olshausen, and Sommer (2020), a companion article in this issue, to solve a high-dimensional vector factorization problem arising in Vector Symbolic Architectures. Given a composite vector formed by the Hadamard product between a discrete set of high-dimensional vectors, a resonator network can efficiently decompose the composite into these factors. We compare the performance of resonator networks against optimization-based methods, including Alternating Least Squares and several gradient-based algorithms, showing that resonator networks are superior in several important ways. This advantage is achieved by leveraging a combination of nonlinear dynamics and searching in superposition, by which estimates of the correct solution are formed from a weighted superposition of all possible solutions. While the alternative methods also search in superposition, the dynamics of resonator networks allow them to strike a more effective balance between exploring the solution space and exploiting local information to drive the network toward probable solutions. Resonator networks are not guaranteed to converge, but within a particular regime they almost always do. In exchange for relaxing the guarantee of global convergence, resonator networks are dramatically more effective at finding factorizations than all alternative approaches considered. 
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