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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Intense lower band chorus waves are ubiquitous in the inner magnetosphere. Their properties have been modeled by various codes and investigated using measurements of many spacecraft missions. This study aims to compare simulated and observed properties of chorus waves. We present detailed comparisons between results from four different codes of nonlinear chorus wave generation and statistical observations from satellites, focusing on the fine structure of such chorus waves. We show that simulations performed with these different codes well reproduce the observed wave packet characteristics, although in somewhat complementary parameter domains as concerns wave packets sizes, amplitudes, and frequency sweep rates. In particular, simulations generate both the frequently observed short wave packets with high positive and negative frequency sweep rates, and the more rare long and intense packets with mainly rising tones. Moreover, simulations reproduce quantitatively both the increase of the size of the observed chorus wave packets with their peak amplitude, and the fast decrease of their frequency sweep rate as their size increases. This confirms the reliability of the main existing codes for accurately modeling chorus wave generation, although we find that initial conditions should be carefully selected to reproduce a given parameter range.

  3. Abstract For several decades, the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) has been an unsolved question of high-energy astrophysics. One approach for solving this puzzle is to correlate UHECRs with high-energy neutrinos, since neutrinos are a direct probe of hadronic interactions of cosmic rays and are not deflected by magnetic fields. In this paper, we present three different approaches for correlating the arrival directions of neutrinos with the arrival directions of UHECRs. The neutrino data are provided by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory and ANTARES, while the UHECR data with energies above ∼50 EeV are provided by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. All experiments provide increased statistics and improved reconstructions with respect to our previous results reported in 2015. The first analysis uses a high-statistics neutrino sample optimized for point-source searches to search for excesses of neutrino clustering in the vicinity of UHECR directions. The second analysis searches for an excess of UHECRs in the direction of the highest-energy neutrinos. The third analysis searches for an excess of pairs of UHECRs and highest-energy neutrinos on different angular scales. None of the analyses have found a significant excess, and previously reported overfluctuations are reduced in significance. Based on thesemore »results, we further constrain the neutrino flux spatially correlated with UHECRs.« less