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  1. Abstract

    Some physical processes that occur during a star's main-sequence evolution also affect its post-main-sequence evolution. It is well known that stars with masses above approximately 1.1Mhave well-mixed convective cores on the main sequence; however, the structure of the star in the neighborhood of the convective core regions is currently underconstrained. We use asteroseismology to study the properties of the stellar core, in particular convective boundary mixing through convective overshoot, in such intermediate-mass stars. These core regions are poorly constrained by the acoustic (p) mode oscillations observed for cool main-sequence stars. Consequently, we seek fossil signatures of main-sequence core properties during the subgiant and early first-ascent red giant phases of evolution. During these stages of stellar evolution, modes of mixed character that sample the deep interior can be observed. These modes sample the parts of the stars that are affected by the main-sequence structure of these regions. We model the global and near-core properties of 62 subgiant and early first-ascent red giant branch stars observed by theKepler, K2, and TESS space missions. We find that the effective overshoot parameter,αov,eff, increases fromM= 1.0MtoM= 1.2Mbefore flattening out, although we note that the relationship betweenαov,effand mass will depend on the incorporated modeling choices of internal physics and nuclear reaction network. We also situate these results within existing studies of main-sequence convective core boundaries.

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    Strong magnetic fields are expected to significantly modify the pulsation frequencies of waves propagating in the cores of red giants or in the radiative envelopes of intermediate- and high-mass main-sequence stars. We calculate the g-mode frequencies of stars with magnetic dipole fields which are aligned with their rotational axes, treating both the Lorentz and Coriolis forces non-perturbatively. We provide a compact asymptotic formula for the g-mode period spacing and universally find that strong magnetism decreases this period spacing substantially more than is predicted by perturbation theory. These results are validated with explicit numerical mode calculations for realistic stellar models. The approach we present is highly versatile: once the eigenvalues λ of a certain differential operator are pre-computed as a function of the magnetogravity and rotational frequencies (in units of the mode frequency), the non-perturbative impact of the Coriolis and Lorentz forces is understood under a broad domain of validity and is readily incorporated into asteroseismic modelling.

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  3. Abstract

    Asteroseismology has been used extensively in recent years to study the interior structure and physical processes of main-sequence stars. We consider prospects for using pressure modes (p-modes) near the frequency of maximum oscillation power to probe the structure of the near-core layers of main-sequence stars with convective cores by constructing stellar model tracks. Within our mass range of interest, the inner turning point of p-modes as determined by the Jeffreys–Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (JWKB) approximation evolves in two distinct phases during the main sequence, implying a sudden loss of near-core sensitivity during the discontinuous transition between the two phases. However, we also employ non-JWKB asymptotic analysis to derive a contrasting set of expressions for the effects that these structural properties will have on the mode frequencies, which do not encode any such transition. We show analytically that a sufficiently near-core perturbation to the stellar structure results in nonoscillatory, degree-dependent perturbations to the star’s oscillation mode frequencies, contrasting with the case of an outer glitch. We also demonstrate numerically that these near-core acoustic glitches exhibit strong angular degree dependence, even at low degree, agreeing with the non-JWKB analysis, rather than the degree-independent oscillations that emerge from JWKB analyses. These properties have important implications for using p-modes to study near-core mixing processes for intermediate-mass stars on the main sequence, as well as for the interpretation of near-center acoustic glitches in other astrophysical configurations, such as red giants.

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  4. Abstract

    The bright starλSer hosts a hot Neptune with a minimum mass of 13.6Mand a 15.5 day orbit. It also appears to be a solar analog, with a mean rotation period of 25.8 days and surface differential rotation very similar to the Sun. We aim to characterize the fundamental properties of this system and constrain the evolutionary pathway that led to its present configuration. We detect solar-like oscillations in time series photometry from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and we derive precise asteroseismic properties from detailed modeling. We obtain new spectropolarimetric data, and we use them to reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field morphology. We reanalyze the complete time series of chromospheric activity measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory, and we present new X-ray and ultraviolet observations from the Chandra and Hubble space telescopes. Finally, we use the updated observational constraints to assess the rotational history of the star and estimate the wind braking torque. We conclude that the remaining uncertainty on the stellar age currently prevents an unambiguous interpretation of the properties ofλSer, and that the rate of angular momentum loss appears to be higher than for other stars with a similar Rossby number. Future asteroseismic observations may help to improve the precision of the stellar age.

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  5. null (Ed.)