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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Feature spaces in the deep layers of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are often very high-dimensional and difficult to inter-pret. However, convolutional layers consist of multiple channels that are activated by different types of inputs, which suggests that more insights may be gained by studying the channels and how they relate to each other. In this paper, we first analyze theoretically channel-wise non-negative kernel (CW-NNK) regression graphs, which allow us to quantify the overlap between channels and, indirectly, the intrinsic dimension of the data representation manifold. We find that redundancy between channels is significant and varies with the layer depth andmore »the level of regularization during training. Additionally, we observe that there is a correlation between channel overlap in the last convolutional layer and generalization performance. Our experimental results demonstrate that these techniques can lead to a better understanding of deep representations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2023
  3. We introduce chroma subsampling for 3D point cloud attribute compression by proposing a novel technique to sample points irregularly placed in 3D space. While most current video compression standards use chroma subsampling, these chroma subsampling methods cannot be directly applied to 3D point clouds, given their irregularity and sparsity. In this work, we develop a framework to incorporate chroma subsampling into geometry-based point cloud encoders, such as region adaptive hierarchical transform (RAHT) and region adaptive graph Fourier transform (RAGFT). We propose different sampling patterns on a regular 3D grid to sample the points at different rates. We use a simplemore »graph-based nearest neighbor interpolation technique to reconstruct the full resolution point cloud at the decoder end. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method provides significant coding gains with negligible impact on the reconstruction quality. For some sequences, we observe a bitrate reduction of 10-15% under the Bjontegaard metric. More generally, perceptual masking makes it possible to achieve larger bitrate reductions without visible changes in quality.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2023
  4. Motivated by the success of fractional pixel motion in video coding, we explore the design of motion estimation with fractional-voxel resolution for compression of color attributes of dynamic 3D point clouds. Our proposed block-based fractional-voxel motion estimation scheme takes into account the fundamental differences between point clouds and videos, i.e., the irregularity of the distribution of voxels within a frame and across frames. We show that motion compensation can benefit from the higher resolution reference and more accurate displacements provided by fractional precision. Our proposed scheme significantly outperforms comparable methods that only use integer motion. The proposed scheme can bemore »combined with and add sizeable gains to state-of-the-art systems that use transforms such as Region Adaptive Graph Fourier Transform and Region Adaptive Haar Transform.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. State-of-the-art neural network architectures continue to scale in size and deliver impressive generalization results, although this comes at the expense of limited interpretability. In particular, a key challenge is to determine when to stop training the model, as this has a significant impact on generalization. Convolutional neural networks (ConvNets) comprise high-dimensional feature spaces formed by the aggregation of multiple channels, where analyzing intermediate data representations and the model's evolution can be challenging owing to the curse of dimensionality. We present channel-wise DeepNNK (CW-DeepNNK), a novel channel-wise generalization estimate based on non-negative kernel regression (NNK) graphs with which we perform localmore »polytope interpolation on low-dimensional channels. This method leads to instance-based interpretability of both the learned data representations and the relationship between channels. Motivated by our observations, we use CW-DeepNNK to propose a novel early stopping criterion that (i) does not require a validation set, (ii) is based on a task performance metric, and (iii) allows stopping to be reached at different points for each channel. Our experiments demonstrate that our proposed method has advantages as compared to the standard criterion based on validation set performance.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  6. We present an efficient voxelization method to encode the geometry and attributes of 3D point clouds obtained from autonomous vehicles. Due to the circular scanning trajectory of sensors, the geometry of LiDAR point clouds is inherently different from that of point clouds captured from RGBD cameras. Our method exploits these specific properties to representing points in cylindrical coordinates instead of conventional Cartesian coordinates. We demonstrate that Region Adaptive Hierarchical Transform (RAHT) can be extended to this setting, leading to attribute encoding based on a volumetric partition in cylindrical coordinates. Experimental results show that our proposed voxelization outperforms conventional approaches basedmore »on Cartesian coordinates for this type of data. We observe a significant improvement in attribute coding performance with 5-10% reduction in bitrate and octree representation with 35-45% reduction in bits.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 19, 2022
  7. Several machine learning methods leverage the idea of locality by using k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques to design better pattern recognition models. However, the choice of KNN parameters such as k is often made experimentally, e.g., via cross-validation, leading to local neighborhoods without a clear geometric interpretation. In this paper, we replace KNN with our recently introduced polytope neighborhood scheme - Non Negative Kernel regression (NNK). NNK formulates neighborhood selection as a sparse signal approximation problem and is adaptive to the local distribution of samples in the neighborhood of the data point of interest. We analyze the benefits of local neighborhoodmore »construction based on NNK. In particular, we study the generalization properties of local interpolation using NNK and present data dependent bounds in the non asymptotic setting. The applicability of NNK in transductive few shot learning setting and for measuring distance between two datasets is demonstrated. NNK exhibits robust, superior performance in comparison to standard locally weighted neighborhood methods.« less
  8. Deep Learning (DL) has attracted a lot of attention for its ability to reach state-of-the-art performance in many machine learning tasks. The core principle of DL methods consists of training composite architectures in an end-to-end fashion, where inputs are associated with outputs trained to optimize an objective function. Because of their compositional nature, DL architectures naturally exhibit several intermediate representations of the inputs, which belong to so-called latent spaces. When treated individually, these intermediate representations are most of the time unconstrained during the learning process, as it is unclear which properties should be favored. However, when processing a batch ofmore »inputs concurrently, the corresponding set of intermediate representations exhibit relations (what we call a geometry) on which desired properties can be sought. In this work, we show that it is possible to introduce constraints on these latent geometries to address various problems. In more detail, we propose to represent geometries by constructing similarity graphs from the intermediate representations obtained when processing a batch of inputs. By constraining these Latent Geometry Graphs (LGGs), we address the three following problems: (i) reproducing the behavior of a teacher architecture is achieved by mimicking its geometry, (ii) designing efficient embeddings for classification is achieved by targeting specific geometries, and (iii) robustness to deviations on inputs is achieved via enforcing smooth variation of geometry between consecutive latent spaces. Using standard vision benchmarks, we demonstrate the ability of the proposed geometry-based methods in solving the considered problems.« less
  9. For the past few years, deep learning (DL) robustness (i.e. the ability to maintain the same decision when inputs are subject to perturbations) has become a question of paramount importance, in particular in settings where misclassification can have dramatic consequences. To address this question, authors have proposed different approaches, such as adding regularizers or training using noisy examples. In this paper we introduce a regularizer based on the Laplacian of similarity graphs obtained from the representation of training data at each layer of the DL architecture. This regularizer penalizes large changes (across consecutive layers in the architecture) in the distancemore »between examples of different classes, and as such enforces smooth variations of the class boundaries. We provide theoretical justification for this regularizer and demonstrate its effectiveness to improve robustness on classical supervised learning vision datasets for various types of perturbations. We also show it can be combined with existing methods to increase overall robustness.« less