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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Diamond like semiconductors (DLS) have emerged as candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion. Towards understanding and optimizing performance, we present a comprehensive investigation of the electronic properties of two DLS phases, quaternary Cu 2 HgGeTe 4 and related ordered vacancy compound Hg 2 GeTe 4 , including thermodynamic stability, defect chemistry, and transport properties. To establish the thermodynamic link between the related but distinct phases, the stability region for both is visualized in chemical potential space. In spite of their similar structure and bonding, we show that the two materials exhibit reciprocal behaviors for dopability. Cu 2 HgGeTe 4 is degenerately p-type in all environments despite its wide stability region, due to the presence of low-energy acceptor defects V Cu and Cu Hg and is resistant to extrinsic n-type doping. Meanwhile Hg 2 GeTe 4 has a narrow stability region and intrinsic behavior due to the relatively high formation energy of native defects, but presents an opportunity for bi-polar doping. While these two compounds have similar structure, bonding, and chemical constituents, the reciprocal nature of their dopability emerges from significant differences in band edge positions. A Brouwer band diagram approach is utilized to visualize the role of native defects on carriermore »concentrations, dopability, and transport properties. This study elucidates the doping asymmetry between two solid-solution forming DLS phases Cu 2 HgGeTe 4 and Hg 2 GeTe 4 by revealing the defect chemistry of each compound, and suggests design strategies for defect engineering of DLS phases.« less
  4. II–IV–V 2 materials, ternary analogs to III–V materials, are emerging for their potential applications in devices such as LEDs and solar cells. Controlling cation ordering in II–IV–V 2 materials offers the potential to tune properties at nearly fixed compositions and lattice parameters. While tuning properties at a fixed lattice constant through ordering has the potential to be a powerful tool used in device fabrication, cation ordering also creates challenges with characterization and quantification of ordering. In this work, we investigate two different methods to quantify cation ordering in ZnGeP 2 thin films: a stretching parameter calculated from lattice constants , and an order parameter determined from the cation site occupancies ( S ). We use high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) to determine and resonant energy X-ray diffraction (REXD) to extract S . REXD is critical to distinguish between elements with similar Z -number ( e.g. Zn and Ge). We found that samples with a corresponding to the ordered chalcopyrite structure had only partially ordered S values. The optical absorption onset for these films occurred at lower energy than expected for fully ordered ZnGeP 2 , indicating that S is a more accurate descriptor of cation order than the stretching parameter.more »Since disorder is complex and can occur on many length scales, metrics for quantifying disorder should be chosen that most accurately reflect the physical properties of interest.« less
  5. Binary Co 4 Sb 12 skutterudite (also known as CoSb 3 ) has been extensively studied; however, its mixed-anion counterparts remain largely unexplored in terms of their phase stability and thermoelectric properties. In the search for complex anionic analogs of the binary skutterudite, we begin by investigating the Co 4 Sb 12 –Co 4 Sn 6 Te 6 pseudo-binary phase diagram. We observe no quaternary skutterudite phases and as such, focus our investigations on the ternary Co 4 Sn 6 Te 6 via experimental phase boundary mapping, transport measurements, and first-principles calculations. Phase boundary mapping using traditional bulk syntheses reveals that the Co 4 Sn 6 Te 6 exhibits electronic properties ranging from a degenerate p-type behavior to an intrinsic behavior. Under Sn-rich conditions, Hall measurements indicate degenerate p-type carrier concentrations and high hole mobility. The acceptor defect Sn Te , and donor defects Te Sn and Co i are the predominant defects and rationally correspond to regions of high Sn, Te, and Co, respectively. Consideration of the defect energetics indicates that p-type extrinsic doping is plausible; however, Sn Te is likely a killer defect that limits n-type dopability. We find that the hole carrier concentration in Co 4 Snmore »6 Te 6 can be further optimized by extrinsic p-type doping under Sn-rich growth conditions.« less