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  1. We examine the use of computer-based learning in the classroom and the effect of immediate feedback on student performance. Since it is well known in educational research that it is possible to observe a “Matthew Effect” in which the rich get richer, we wanted to see if feedback was useful for low prior knowledge students, as defined by students whose pretest score was at or below the median. In this counterbalanced randomized controlled trial, 243 tenth and eleventh grade mathematics students were exposed to one of two conditions, as we measured their learning from: 1) immediate feedback (where the computer told them correctness and they could also ask for hints) or 2) practice only (where they received feedback only after taking a posttest). Results suggest that immediate feedback from computer-based learning tasks benefit both high and low prior knowledge students, with low prior knowledge students exhibiting greater gains. The implications of these findings support further investigation into the use of computer-based learning tasks that provide immediate feedback. 
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  2. We examine the use of computer-based learning in the classroom and the effect of immediate feedback on student performance. Since it is well known in educational research that it is possible to observe a “Matthew Effect” in which the rich get richer, we wanted to see if feedback was useful for low prior knowledge students, as defined by students whose pretest score was at or below the median. In this counterbalanced randomized controlled trial, 243 tenth and eleventh grade mathematics students were exposed to one of two conditions, as we measured their learning from: 1) immediate feedback (where the computer told them correctness and they could also ask for hints) or 2) practice only (where they received feedback only after taking a posttest). Results suggest that immediate feedback from computer-based learning tasks benefit both high and low prior knowledge students, with low prior knowledge students exhibiting greater gains. The implications of these findings support further investigation into the use of computer-based learning tasks that provide immediate feedback. 
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  3. Handwriting practice is the most time-consuming activity for learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). CFL instructors report allocating at least one third of their course time to handwriting practice although it prevents students from engaging in meaningful communication, especially in the earliest stages of learning. Given the amount of time students spend in a college course is relatively fixed, the preregistered study presented herein examines the best use of students’ time when primary goals are word acquisition and communication. This work replicates a pilot study examining CFL word recognition in an online learning environment (ASSISTments) and the effects of supplemental handwriting practice. We examined word acquisition and recognition while manipulating condition (no-handwriting practice and with-handwriting practice), and posttest test point (1 [immediate], 2 [1 day delay], and 3 [1 week delay]). Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance revealed significant main effects for both condition and posttest test point in online and on-paper measures of word recognition and handwriting. Potential implications for CFL instruction and directions for future work are discussed. 
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