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  1. Abstract

    In this paper, we present a chemical and kinematic analysis of two ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs), Aquarius II (Aqu II) and Boötes II (Boo II), using Magellan/IMACS spectroscopy. We present the largest sample of member stars for Boo II (12), and the largest sample of red giant branch members with metallicity measurements for Aqu II (eight). In both UFDs, over 80% of targets selected based on Gaia proper motions turned out to be spectroscopic members. In order to maximize the accuracy of stellar kinematic measurements, we remove the identified binary stars and RR Lyrae variables. For Aqu II, we measure a systemic velocity of −65.3 ± 1.8 km s−1and a metallicity of [Fe/H] =2.570.17+0.17. When compared with previous measurements, these values display a ∼6 km s−1difference in radial velocity and a decrease of 0.27 dex in metallicity. Similarly for Boo II, we measure a systemic velocity of130.41.1+1.4km s−1, more than 10 km s−1different from the literature, a metallicity almost 1 dex smaller at [Fe/H] =2.710.10+0.11, and a velocity dispersion 3 times smaller atσvhel=2.91.2+1.6km s−1. Additionally, we derive systemic proper-motion parameters and model the orbits of both UFDs. Finally, we highlight the extremely dark-matter-dominated nature of Aqu II and compute the J-factor for both galaxies to aid searches of dark matter annihilation. Despite the small size and close proximity of Boo II, it is an intermediate target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation due to its low-velocity dispersion and corresponding low dark matter density.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. ABSTRACT

    We use Fermi-LAT data to analyse the faint gamma-ray source located at the centre of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy. In the 4FGL-DR3 catalogue, this source is associated with the globular cluster, M54. We investigate the spectral energy distribution and spatial extension of this source, with the goal of testing two hypotheses: (1) the emission is due to millisecond pulsars within M54, or (2) the emission is due to annihilating dark matter from the Sgr halo. For the pulsar interpretation, we consider a two-component model which describes both the lower-energy magnetospheric emission and possible high-energy emission arising from inverse Compton scattering. We find that this source has a point-like morphology at low energies, consistent with magnetospheric emission, and find no evidence for a higher-energy component. For the dark matter interpretation, we find the signal favours a dark matter mass of mχ = 29.6 ± 5.8 GeV and an annihilation cross section of $\sigma v = (2.1 \pm 0.59) \times 10^{-26} \, \text{cm}^3$ s−1 for the $b \bar{b}$ channel (or mχ = 8.3 ± 3.8 GeV and $\sigma v = (0.90 \pm 0.25) \times 10^{-26} \, \text{cm}^3$ s−1 for the τ+τ− channel), when adopting a J-factor of $J=10^{19.6} \, \text{GeV}^2 \, \text{cm}^{-5}$. This parameter space is consistent with gamma-ray constraints from other dwarf galaxies and with dark matter interpretations of the Galactic Centre Gamma-Ray Excess.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) display chemical enrichment in a phenomenon called multiple stellar populations (MSPs). While the enrichment mechanism is not fully understood, there is a correlation between a cluster’s mass and the fraction of enriched stars found therein. However, present-day GC masses are often smaller than their masses at the time of formation due to dynamical mass-loss. In this work, we explore the relationship between mass and MSPs using the stellar stream 300S. We present the chemical abundances of eight red giant branch member stars in 300S with high-resolution spectroscopy from Magellan/MIKE. We identify one enriched star characteristic of MSPs and no detectable metallicity dispersion, confirming that the progenitor of 300S was a GC. The fraction of enriched stars (12.5 per cent) observed in our 300S stars is less than the 50 per cent of stars found enriched in Milky Way GCs of comparable present-day mass (∼104.5 $\mathrm{\, {\rm M}_{\odot }}$). We calculate the mass of 300S’s progenitor and compare it to the initial masses of intact GCs, finding that 300S aligns well with the trend between the system mass at formation and enrichment. 300S’s progenitor may straddle the critical mass threshold for the formation of MSPs and can therefore serve as a benchmark for the stellar enrichment process. Additionally, we identify a CH star, with high abundances of s-process elements, probably accreted from a binary companion. The rarity of such binaries in intact GCs may imply stellar streams permit the survival of binaries that would otherwise be disrupted.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present spectroscopic data for 16,369 stellar targets within and/or toward 38 dwarf spheroidal galaxies and faint star clusters within the Milky Way halo environment. All spectra come from observations with the multiobject, fiber-fed echelle spectrographs M2FS at the Magellan/Clay telescope or Hectochelle at the MMT, reaching a typical limiting magnitudeG≲ 21. Data products include processed spectra from all observations and catalogs listing estimates—derived from template model fitting—of line-of-sight velocity (median uncertainty 1.4 km s−1) effective temperature (255 K), (base-10 logarithm of) surface gravity (0.59 dex in cgs units), [Fe/H] (0.4 dex) and [Mg/Fe] (0.27 dex) abundance ratios. The sample contains multiepoch measurements for 3720 sources, with up to 15 epochs per source, enabling studies of intrinsic spectroscopic variability. The sample contains 6087 likely red giant stars (based on surface gravity), and 4492 likely members (based on line-of-sight velocity and Gaia-measured proper motion) of the target systems. The number of member stars per individual target system ranges from a few, for the faintest systems, to ∼850 for the most luminous. For most systems, our new samples extend over wider fields than have previously been observed; of the likely members in our samples, 820 lie beyond 2 times the projected half-light radius of their host system, and 42 lie beyond 5Rhalf.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We present the stellar parameters and chemical abundances of 30 elements for five stars located at large radii (3.5–10.7 times the half-light radius) in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We selected these stars using proper motions, radial velocities, and metallicities, and we confirm them as metal-poor members of Sextans with −3.34 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ −2.64 using high-resolution optical spectra collected with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph. Four of the five stars exhibit normal abundances of C (−0.34 ≤ [C/Fe] ≤ + 0.36), mild enhancement of theαelements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti ([α/Fe] = +0.12 ± 0.03), and unremarkable abundances of Na, Al, K, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn. We identify three chemical signatures previously unknown among stars in Sextans. One star exhibits large overabundances ([X/Fe] > +1.2) of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Si, and K, and large deficiencies of heavy elements ([Sr/Fe] = −2.37 ± 0.25, [Ba/Fe] = −1.45 ± 0.20, [Eu/Fe] < + 0.05), establishing it as a member of the class of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with no enhancement of neutron-capture elements. Three stars exhibit moderate enhancements of Eu (+0.17 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ + 0.70), and the abundance ratios among 12 neutron-capture elements are indicative ofr-process nucleosynthesis. Another star is highly enhanced in Sr relative to heavier elements ([Sr/Ba] = +1.21 ± 0.25). These chemical signatures can all be attributed to massive, low-metallicity stars or their end states. Our results, the first for stars at large radius inSextans, demonstrate that these stars were formed in chemically inhomogeneous regions, such as those found in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies.

     
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  6. ABSTRACT

    We present Magellan/M2FS spectroscopy of four recently discovered Milky Way star clusters (Gran 3/Patchick 125, Gran 4, Garro 01, and LP 866) and two newly discovered open clusters (Gaia 9 and Gaia 10) at low Galactic latitudes. We measure line-of-sight velocities and stellar parameters ([Fe/H], log g, Teff, and [Mg/Fe]) from high-resolution spectroscopy centred on the Mg triplet and identify 20–80 members per star cluster. We determine the kinematics and chemical properties of each cluster and measure the systemic proper motion and orbital properties by utilizing Gaia astrometry. We find Gran 3 to be an old, metal-poor (mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = −1.83) globular cluster located in the Galactic bulge on a retrograde orbit. Gran 4 is an old, metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.84) globular cluster with a halo-like orbit that happens to be passing through the Galactic plane. The orbital properties of Gran 4 are consistent with the proposed LMS-1/Wukong and/or Helmi streams merger events. Garro 01 is metal-rich ([Fe/H] = −0.30) and on a near-circular orbit in the outer disc but its classification as an open cluster or globular cluster is ambiguous. Gaia 9 and Gaia 10 are among the most distant known open clusters at $R_{\mathrm{GC}}\sim 18,~21.2~\mathrm{\, kpc}$ and most metal-poor with [Fe/H] ∼−0.50, −0.34 for Gaia 9 and Gaia 10, respectively. LP 866 is a nearby, metal-rich open cluster ([Fe/H] = +0.10). The discovery and confirmation of multiple star clusters in the Galactic plane shows the power of Gaia astrometry and the star cluster census remains incomplete.

     
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  7. Abstract

    We combine Gaia early data release 3 astrometry with accurate photometry and utilize a probabilistic mixture model to measure the systemic proper motion of 52 dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW). For the 46 dSphs with literature line-of-sight velocities we compute orbits in both a MW and a combined MW + Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) potential and identify Car II, Car III, Hor I, Hyi I, Phx II, and Ret II as likely LMC satellites. 40% of our dSph sample has a >25% change in pericenter and/or apocenter with the MW + LMC potential. For these orbits, we use a Monte Carlo sample for the observational uncertainties for each dSph and the uncertainties in the MW and LMC potentials. We predict that Ant II, Boo III, Cra II, Gru II, and Tuc III should be tidally disrupting by comparing each dSph's average density relative to the MW density at its pericenter. dSphs with large ellipticity (CVn I, Her, Tuc V, UMa I, UMa II, UMi, Wil 1) show a preference for their orbital direction to align with their major axis even for dSphs with large pericenters. We compare the dSph radial orbital phase to subhalos in MW-likeN-body simulations and infer that there is not an excess of satellites near their pericenter. With projections of future Gaia data releases, we find that dSph's orbital precision will be limited by uncertainties in the distance and/or MW potential rather than in proper motion precision. Finally, we provide our membership catalogs to enable community follow-up.

     
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  8. m2fs_HiRes_catalog_public.fits: public catalog of measurements derived from spectroscopic observations of individual targets with the Magellan/M2FS spectrograph in HiRes configuration

    m2fs_MedRes_catalog_public.fits: public catalog of measurements derived from spectroscopic observations of individual targets with the Magellen/M2FS spectrograph in MedRes configuration

    hecto_catalog_public.fits: public catalog of measurements derived from spectroscopic observations of individual targets with the MMT/Hectochelle spectrograph

    fits_files.tar.gz: Supplementary data products, including all sky-subtracted spectra from individual targets and best-fitting model spectra.

    template_spectra.tar.gz: synthetic template spectra (columns are wavelength in air (Angstroms), normalized flux)

     
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  9. Abstract We present the first detailed comparison of populations of dwarf galaxy stellar streams in cosmological simulations and the Milky Way. In particular, we compare streams identified around 13 Milky Way analogs in the FIRE-2 simulations to streams observed by the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey ( S 5 ). For an accurate comparison, we produce mock Dark Energy Survey (DES) observations of the FIRE streams and estimate the detectability of their tidal tails and progenitors. The number and stellar mass distributions of detectable stellar streams is consistent between observations and simulations. However, there are discrepancies in the distributions of pericenters and apocenters, with the detectable FIRE streams, on average, forming at larger pericenters (out to >110 kpc) and surviving only at larger apocenters (≳40 kpc) than those observed in the Milky Way. We find that the population of high-stellar-mass dwarf galaxy streams in the Milky Way is incomplete. Interestingly, a large fraction of the FIRE streams would only be detected as intact satellites in DES-like observations, since their tidal tails have too low surface brightness to be detectable. We thus predict a population of yet-undetected tidal tails around Milky Way satellites, as well as a population of fully undetected low-surface-brightness stellar streams, and estimate their detectability with the Rubin Observatory. Finally, we discuss the causes and implications of the discrepancies between the stream populations in FIRE and the Milky Way, and explore future avenues for tests of satellite disruption in cosmological simulations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 25, 2024
  10. Abstract

    We present a chemodynamical study of the Grus I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD) from medium-resolution (R∼ 11,000) Magellan/IMACS spectra of its individual member stars. We identify eight confirmed members of Grus I, based on their low metallicities and coherent radial velocities, and four candidate members for which only velocities are derived. In contrast to previous work, we find that Grus I has a very low mean metallicity of 〈[Fe/H]〉 = −2.62 ± 0.11 dex, making it one of the most metal-poor UFDs. Grus I has a systemic radial velocity of −143.5 ± 1.2 km s−1and a velocity dispersion ofσrv=2.50.8+1.3km s−1, which results in a dynamical mass ofM1/2(rh)=84+12×105Mand a mass-to-light ratio ofM/LV=440250+650M/L. Under the assumption of dynamical equilibrium, our analysis confirms that Grus I is a dark-matter-dominated UFD (M/L> 80M/L). However, we do not resolve a metallicity dispersion (σ[Fe/H]< 0.44 dex). Our results indicate that Grus I is a fairly typical UFD with parameters that agree with mass–metallicity and metallicity-luminosity trends for faint galaxies. This agreement suggests that Grus I has not lost an especially significant amount of mass from tidal encounters with the Milky Way, in line with its orbital parameters. Intriguingly, Grus I has among the lowest central densities (ρ1/23.52.1+5.7×107Mkpc−3) of the UFDs that are not known to be tidally disrupting. Models of the formation and evolution of UFDs will need to explain the diversity of these central densities, in addition to any diversity in the outer regions of these relic galaxies.

     
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