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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 28, 2023
  3. null (Ed.)
    SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in wastewater is being rapidly developed and adopted as a public health monitoring tool worldwide. With wastewater surveillance programs being implemented across many different scales and by many different stakeholders, it is critical that data collected and shared are accompanied by an appropriate minimal amount of meta-information to enable meaningful interpretation and use of this new information source and intercomparison across datasets. While some databases are being developed for specific surveillance programs locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally, common globally-adopted data standards have not yet been established within the research community. Establishing such standards will require national and international consensus on what meta-information should accompany SARS-CoV-2 wastewater measurements. To establish a recommendation on minimum information to accompany reporting of SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in wastewater for the research community, the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Coordination Network on Wastewater Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 hosted a workshop in February 2021 with participants from academia, government agencies, private companies, wastewater utilities, public health laboratories, and research institutes. This report presents the primary two outcomes of the workshop: (i) a recommendation on the set of minimum meta-information that is needed to confidently interpret wastewater SARS-CoV-2 data, and (ii) insights from workshop discussionsmore »on how to improve standardization of data reporting.« less
  4. Photomineralization, the transformation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to CO 2 by sunlight, is an important source of CO 2 in arctic surface waters. However, quantifying the role of photomineralization in inland waters is limited by the understanding of hydrologic controls on this process. To bridge this gap, this study evaluates mixing limitations, i.e. , whether and by how much vertical mixing limits the depth-integrated photomineralization rate, in freshwater systems. We developed a conceptual model to qualitatively assess mixing limitations across the range of light attenuation and hydrologic conditions observed in freshwaters. For the common case of exponential light attenuation over depth, we developed a mathematical model to quantify mixing limitation, and used this model to assess a range of arctic freshwater systems. The results demonstrate that mixing limitations are important when there is significant light attenuation by suspended sediment (SS), which is the case in some arctic, boreal and temperate waters. Mixing limitation is pronounced when light attenuation over depth is strong and when the photomineralization rate at the water surface exceeds the vertical mixing rate. Arctic streams and rivers have strong vertical mixing relative to surface photomineralization, such that model results demonstrate no mixing limitation regardless of howmore »much SS is present. Our analysis indicates that well-mixed assumptions used in prior work are valid in many, but not all, arctic surface waters. The effects of mixing limitations in reducing the photomineralization rate must be considered in arctic lakes with high SS concentrations.« less