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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Accurate knowledge of transmission line parameters is essential for a variety of power system monitoring, protection, and control applications. The use of phasor measurement unit (PMU) data for transmission line parameter estimation (TLPE) is well-documented. However, existing literature on PMU-based TLPE implicitly assumes the measurement noise to be Gaussian. Recently, it has been shown that the noise in PMU measurements (especially in the current phasors) is better represented by Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), i.e., the noises are non-Gaussian. We present a novel approach for TLPE that can handle non-Gaussian noise in the PMU measurements. The measurement noise is expressed as a GMM, whose components are identified using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Subsequently, noise and parameter estimation is carried out by solving a maximum likelihood estimation problem iteratively until convergence. The superior performance of the proposed approach over traditional approaches such as least squares and total least squares as well as the more recently proposed minimum total error entropy approach is demonstrated by performing simulations using the IEEE 118-bus system as well as proprietary PMU data obtained from a U.S. power utility. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    The distribution system is an integral part of the electric power system, but not much is known about how it behaves in real-time. To address this knowledge gap, a low-cost, time-synchronized, micro point-on-wave recorder is designed, built, and characterized in this paper. The inductively powered recorder operates wirelessly by using the current flowing through a typical distribution conductor. The recorder is designed to be small, lightweight, and is intended to be installed directly on the power line. To validate the performance of this recorder, tests of measurement accuracy, electric current requirements, and susceptibility to electromagnetic interference from both steady-state and arc-induced sources are performed. The results indicate that the proposed recorder satisfies both the technical as well as the economical constraints required for bulk deployment in an actual distribution network. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    The statistical characterization of the measurement errors of a phasor measurement unit (PMU) is currently receiving considerable interest in the power systems community. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the errors in magnitude and angle measurements introduced only by the PMU device (called random errors in this paper), during ambient conditions, using a high-precision calibrator. The experimental results indicate that the random errors follow a non-Gaussian distribution. They also show that the M-class and P-class PMUs have distinct error characteristics. The results of this analysis will help researchers design algorithms that account for the non-Gaussian nature of the errors in synchrophasor measurements, thereby improving the practical utility of the said-algorithms in addition to building on precedence for using high-precision calibrators to perform accurate error tests. 
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