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    This is the fourth paper of a series investigating the AGN fuelling/feedback processes in a sample of 11 nearby low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs). In this paper, we present follow-up Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of one source, NGC 3100, targeting the 12CO(1-0), 12CO(3-2), HCO+(4-3), SiO(3-2), and HNCO(6-5) molecular transitions. 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(3-2) lines are nicely detected and complement our previous 12CO(2-1) data. By comparing the relative strength of these three CO transitions, we find extreme gas excitation conditions (i.e. Tex ≳ 50 K) in regions that are spatially correlated with the radio lobes, supporting the case for a jet–ISM interaction. An accurate study of the CO kinematics demonstrates that although the bulk of the gas is regularly rotating, two distinct non-rotational kinematic components can be identified in the inner gas regions: one can be associated to inflow/outflow streaming motions induced by a two-armed spiral perturbation; the second one is consistent with a jet-induced outflow with vmax ≈ 200 km s−1 and $\dot{M}\lesssim 0.12$ M⊙ yr−1. These values indicate that the jet-CO coupling ongoing in NGC 3100 is only mildly affecting the gas kinematics, as opposed to what expected from existing simulations and other observational studies of (sub-)kpc scale jet–cold gas interactions. HCO+(4-3) emission is tentatively detectedmore »in a small area adjacent to the base of the northern radio lobe, possibly tracing a region of jet-induced gas compression. The SiO(3-2) and HNCO(6-5) shock tracers are undetected: this – along with the tentative HCO+(4-3) detection – may be consistent with a deficiency of very dense (i.e. ncrit > 106 cm−3) cold gas in the central regions of NGC 3100.

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    We measure the local correlation between radio emission and Compton-y signal across two galaxy clusters, Abell 399 and Abell 401, using maps from the Low Frequency Array and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope  + Planck. These data sets allow us to make the first measurement of this kind at ∼arcmin resolution. We find that the radio brightness scales as Fradio ∝ y1.5 for Abell 401 and Fradio ∝ y2.8 for Abell 399. Furthermore, using XMM–Newton data, we derive a sublinear correlation between radio and X-ray brightness for both the clusters ($F_{\mathrm{radio}} \propto F_{\rm X}^{0.7}$). Finally, we correlate the Compton-y and X-ray data, finding that an isothermal model is consistent with the cluster profiles, $y \propto F_{\rm X}^{0.5}$. By adopting an isothermal–β model, we are able, for the first time, to jointly use radio, X-ray, and Compton-y data to estimate the scaling index for the magnetic field profile, B(r) ∝ ne(r)η in the injection and re-acceleration scenarios. Applying this model, we find that the combined radio and Compton-y signal exhibits a significantly tighter correlation with the X-ray across the clusters than when the data sets are independently correlated. We find η ∼ 0.6–0.8. These results are consistent with the upper limit we derive for the scaling index of the magnetic field usingmore »rotation measure values for two radio galaxies in Abell 401. We also measure the radio, Compton-y, and X-ray correlations in the filament between the clusters but conclude that deeper data are required for a convincing determination of the correlations in the filament.

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  3. Abstract

    We characterize the accuracy of linear-polarization mosaics made using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). First, we observed the bright, highly linearly polarized blazar 3C 279 at Bands 3, 5, 6, and 7 (3 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.3 mm, and 0.87 mm, respectively). At each band, we measured the blazar’s polarization on an 11 × 11 grid of evenly spaced offset pointings covering the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) area of the primary beam. After applying calibration solutions derived from the on-axis pointing of 3C 279 to all of the on- and off-axis data, we find that the residual polarization errors across the primary beam are similar at all frequencies: the residual errors in linear polarization fractionPfracand polarization position angleχare ≲0.001 (≲0.1% of StokesI) and ≲ 1° near the center of the primary beam; the errors increase to ∼0.003–0.005 (∼0.3%–0.5% of StokesI) and ∼1°–5° near the FWHM as a result of the asymmetric beam patterns in the (linearly polarized)QandUmaps. We see the expected double-lobed “beam squint” pattern in the circular polarization (StokesV) maps. Second, to test the polarization accuracy in a typical ALMA project, we performed observations of continuum linear polarization toward the Kleinmann–Low nebula in Orion (Orion-KL) using several mosaic patterns at Bands 3more »and 6. We show that after mosaicking, the residual off-axis errors decrease as a result of overlapping multiple pointings. Finally, we compare the ALMA mosaics with an archival 1.3 mm Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy polarization mosaic of Orion-KL and find good consistency in the polarization patterns.

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