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    We estimate the redshift-dependent, anisotropic clustering signal in the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) Year 1 Survey created by tidal alignments of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and a selection-induced galaxy orientation bias. To this end, we measured the correlation between LRG shapes and the tidal field with DESI’s Year 1 redshifts, as traced by LRGs and Emission-Line Galaxies. We also estimate the galaxy orientation bias of LRGs caused by DESI’s aperture-based selection, and find it to increase by a factor of seven between redshifts 0.4−1.1 due to redder, fainter galaxies falling closer to DESI’s imaging selection cuts. These effects combine to dampen measurements of the quadrupole of the correlation function (ξ2) caused by structure growth on scales of 10–80 h−1 Mpc by about 0.15 per cent for low redshifts (0.4 < z < 0.6) and 0.8 per cent for high (0.8 < z < 1.1), a significant fraction of DESI’s error budget. We provide estimates of the ξ2 signal created by intrinsic alignments that can be used to correct this effect, which is necessary to meet DESI’s forecasted precision on measuring the growth rate of structure. While imaging quality varies across DESI’s footprint, we find no significant difference in this effect between imaging regions in the Legacy Imaging Survey.

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    We measure the tidal alignment of the major axes of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Legacy Imaging Survey and use it to infer the artificial redshift-space distortion signature that will arise from an orientation-dependent, surface-brightness selection in the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Using photometric redshifts to downweight the shape–density correlations due to weak lensing, we measure the intrinsic tidal alignment of LRGs. Separately, we estimate the net polarization of LRG orientations from DESI’s fibre-magnitude target selection to be of order 10−2 along the line of sight. Using these measurements and a linear tidal model, we forecast a 0.5 per cent fractional decrease on the quadrupole of the two-point correlation function for projected separations of 40–80 h−1 Mpc. We also use a halo catalogue from the Abacussummit cosmological simulation suite to reproduce this false quadrupole.

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    We describe the target selection and characteristics of the DESI Peculiar Velocity Survey, the largest survey of peculiar velocities (PVs) using both the fundamental plane (FP) and the Tully–Fisher (TF) relationship planned to date. We detail how we identify suitable early-type galaxies (ETGs) for the FP and suitable late-type galaxies (LTGs) for the TF relation using the photometric data provided by the DESI Legacy Imaging Survey DR9. Subsequently, we provide targets for 373 533 ETGs and 118 637 LTGs within the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) 5-yr footprint. We validate these photometric selections using existing morphological classifications. Furthermore, we demonstrate using survey validation data that DESI is able to measure the spectroscopic properties to sufficient precision to obtain PVs for our targets. Based on realistic DESI fibre assignment simulations and spectroscopic success rates, we predict the final DESI PV Survey will obtain ∼133 000 FP-based and ∼53 000 TF-based PV measurements over an area of 14 000 deg2. We forecast the ability of using these data to measure the clustering of galaxy positions and PVs from the combined DESI PV and Bright Galaxy Surveys (BGS), which allows for cancellation of cosmic variance at low redshifts. With these forecasts, we anticipate a 4 per cent statistical measurement on the growth rate of structure at z < 0.15. This is over two times better than achievable with redshifts from the BGS alone. The combined DESI PV and BGS will enable the most precise tests to date of the time and scale dependence of large-scale structure growth at z < 0.15.

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  4. Abstract

    We report the first results of a high-redshift (z≳ 5) quasar survey using the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). As a DESI secondary target program, this survey is designed to carry out a systematic search and investigation of quasars at 4.8 <z< 6.8. The target selection is based on the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys (the Legacy Surveys) DR9 photometry, combined with the Pan-STARRS1 data andJ-band photometry from public surveys. A first quasar sample has been constructed from the DESI Survey Validation 3 (SV3) and first-year observations until 2022 May. This sample includes more than 400 new quasars at redshift 4.7 ≤z< 6.6, down to 21.5 magnitude (AB) in thezband, discovered from 35% of the entire target sample. Remarkably, there are 220 new quasars identified atz≥ 5, more than one-third of existing quasars previously published at this redshift. The observations so far result in an average success rate of 23% atz> 4.7. The current spectral data set has already allowed analysis of interesting individual objects (e.g., quasars with damped Lyαabsorbers and broad absorption line features), and statistical analysis will follow the survey’s completion. A set of science projects will be carried out leveraging this program, including quasar luminosity function, quasar clustering, intergalactic medium, quasar spectral properties, intervening absorbers, and properties of early supermassive black holes. Additionally, a sample of 38 new quasars atz∼ 3.8–5.7 discovered from a pilot survey in the DESI SV1 is also published in this paper.

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  5. Abstract We use luminous red galaxies selected from the imaging surveys that are being used for targeting by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) in combination with CMB lensing maps from the Planck collaboration to probe the amplitude of large-scale structure over 0.4 ≤  z  ≤ 1. Our galaxy sample, with an angular number density of approximately 500 deg -2 over 18,000 sq.deg., is divided into 4 tomographic bins by photometric redshift and the redshift distributions are calibrated using spectroscopy from DESI. We fit the galaxy autospectra and galaxy-convergence cross-spectra using models based on cosmological perturbation theory, restricting to large scales that are expected to be well described by such models. Within the context of ΛCDM, combining all 4 samples and using priors on the background cosmology from supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, we find S 8  = σ 8 (Ω m /0.3) 0.5  = 0.73 ± 0.03. This result is lower than the prediction of the ΛCDM model conditioned on the Planck data. Our data prefer a slower growth of structure at low redshift than the model predictions, though at only modest significance. 
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    We measure the 1D Ly α power spectrum P1D from Keck Observatory Database of Ionized Absorption toward Quasars (KODIAQ), The Spectral Quasar Absorption Database (SQUAD), and XQ-100 quasars using the optimal quadratic estimator. We combine KODIAQ and SQUAD at the spectrum level, but perform a separate XQ-100 estimation to control its large resolution corrections in check. Our final analysis measures P1D at scales k < 0.1 s km−1 between redshifts $z$ = 2.0–4.6 using 538 quasars. This sample provides the largest number of high-resolution, high-S/N observations; and combined with the power of optimal estimator it provides exceptional precision at small scales. These small-scale modes (k ≳ 0.02 s km−1), unavailable in Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument analyses, are sensitive to the thermal state and reionization history of the intergalactic medium, as well as the nature of dark matter. As an example, a simple Fisher forecast analysis estimates that our results can improve small-scale cut-off sensitivity by more than a factor of 2.

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    The quasar target selection for the upcoming survey of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will be fixed for the next 5 yr. The aim of this work is to validate the quasar selection by studying the impact of imaging systematics as well as stellar and galactic contaminants, and to develop a procedure to mitigate them. Density fluctuations of quasar targets are found to be related to photometric properties such as seeing and depth of the Data Release 9 of the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys. To model this complex relation, we explore machine learning algorithms (random forest and multilayer perceptron) as an alternative to the standard linear regression. Splitting the footprint of the Legacy Imaging Surveys into three regions according to photometric properties, we perform an independent analysis in each region, validating our method using extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) EZ-mocks. The mitigation procedure is tested by comparing the angular correlation of the corrected target selection on each photometric region to the angular correlation function obtained using quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 16. With our procedure, we recover a similar level of correlation between DESI quasar targets and SDSS quasars in two-thirds of the total footprint and we show that the excess of correlation in the remaining area is due to a stellar contamination that should be removed with DESI spectroscopic data. We derive the Limber parameters in our three imaging regions and compare them to previous measurements from SDSS and the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey.

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    Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will construct a large and precise three-dimensional map of our Universe. The survey effective volume reaches $\sim 20\, h^{-3}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{3}$. It is a great challenge to prepare high-resolution simulations with a much larger volume for validating the DESI analysis pipelines. AbacusSummit is a suite of high-resolution dark-matter-only simulations designed for this purpose, with $200\, h^{-3}\, \mathrm{Gpc}^{3}$ (10 times DESI volume) for the base cosmology. However, further efforts need to be done to provide a more precise analysis of the data and to cover also other cosmologies. Recently, the CARPool method was proposed to use paired accurate and approximate simulations to achieve high statistical precision with a limited number of high-resolution simulations. Relying on this technique, we propose to use fast quasi-N-body solvers combined with accurate simulations to produce accurate summary statistics. This enables us to obtain 100 times smaller variance than the expected DESI statistical variance at the scales we are interested in, e.g. $k \lt 0.3\, h\, \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ for the halo power spectrum. In addition, it can significantly suppress the sample variance of the halo bispectrum. We further generalize the method for other cosmologies with only one realization in AbacusSummit suite to extend the effective volume ∼20 times. In summary, our proposed strategy of combining high-fidelity simulations with fast approximate gravity solvers and a series of variance suppression techniques sets the path for a robust cosmological analysis of galaxy survey data.

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    We present the one-dimensional Ly α forest power spectrum measurement using the first data provided by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). The data sample comprises 26 330 quasar spectra, at redshift z > 2.1, contained in the DESI Early Data Release and the first 2 months of the main survey. We employ a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimator and compare the resulting power spectrum to an alternative likelihood-based method in a companion paper. We investigate methodological and instrumental contaminants associated with the new DESI instrument, applying techniques similar to previous Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) measurements. We use synthetic data based on lognormal approximation to validate and correct our measurement. We compare our resulting power spectrum with previous SDSS and high-resolution measurements. With relatively small number statistics, we successfully perform the FFT measurement, which is already competitive in terms of the scale range. At the end of the DESI survey, we expect a five times larger Ly α forest sample than SDSS, providing an unprecedented precise one-dimensional power spectrum measurement.

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