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  1. Abstract AP-1 and AP-2 adaptor protein complexes mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane, respectively. Whereas AP-1 is required for trafficking to plasma membrane and vacuoles, AP-2 mediates endocytosis. These AP complexes consist of four subunits (adaptins): two large subunits (β1 and γ for AP-1 and β2 and α for AP-2), a medium subunit μ, and a small subunit σ. In general, adaptins are unique to each AP complex, with the exception of β subunits that are shared by AP-1 and AP-2 in some invertebrates. Here, we show that the two putative Arabidopsis thaliana AP1/2β adaptins co-assemble with both AP-1 and AP-2 subunits and regulate exocytosis and endocytosis in root cells, consistent with their dual localization at the TGN and plasma membrane. Deletion of both β adaptins is lethal in plants. We identified a critical role of β adaptins in pollen wall formation and reproduction, involving the regulation of membrane trafficking in the tapetum and pollen germination. In tapetal cells, β adaptins localize almost exclusively to the TGN and mediate exocytosis of the plasma membrane transporters such as ABCG9 and ABCG16. This study highlights the essential role of AP1/2β adaptins in plants and their specializedmore »roles in specific cell types.« less
  2. Abstract

    In eukaryotes, clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) facilitate the internalization of material from the cell surface as well as the movement of cargo in post-Golgi trafficking pathways. This diversity of functions is partially provided by multiple monomeric and multimeric clathrin adaptor complexes that provide compartment and cargo selectivity. The adaptor-protein assembly polypeptide-1 (AP-1) complex operates as part of the secretory pathway at the trans-Golgi network (TGN), while the AP-2 complex and the TPLATE complex jointly operate at the plasma membrane to execute clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Key to our further understanding of clathrin-mediated trafficking in plants will be the comprehensive identification and characterization of the network of evolutionarily conserved and plant-specific core and accessory machinery involved in the formation and targeting of CCVs. To facilitate these studies, we have analyzed the proteome of enriched TGN/early endosome-derived and endocytic CCVs isolated from dividing and expanding suspension-cultured Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cells. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis results were validated by differential chemical labeling experiments to identify proteins co-enriching with CCVs. Proteins enriched in CCVs included previously characterized CCV components and cargos such as the vacuolar sorting receptors in addition to conserved and plant-specific components whose function in clathrin-mediated trafficking has not been previously defined. Notably, inmore »addition to AP-1 and AP-2, all subunits of the AP-4 complex, but not AP-3 or AP-5, were found to be in high abundance in the CCV proteome. The association of AP-4 with suspension-cultured Arabidopsis CCVs is further supported via additional biochemical data.

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