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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2024
  2. Abstract The abrupt occurrence of twinning when Mg is deformed leads to a highly anisotropic response, making it too unreliable for structural use and too unpredictable for observation. Here, we describe an in-situ transmission electron microscopy experiment on Mg crystals with strategically designed geometries for visualization of a long-proposed but unverified twinning mechanism. Combining with atomistic simulations and topological analysis, we conclude that twin nucleation occurs through a pure-shuffle mechanism that requires prismatic-basal transformations. Also, we verified a crystal geometry dependent twin growth mechanism, that is the early-stage growth associated with instability of plasticity flow, which can be dominated either by slower movement of prismatic-basal boundary steps, or by faster glide-shuffle along the twinning plane. The fundamental understanding of twinning provides a pathway to understand deformation from a scientific standpoint and the microstructure design principles to engineer metals with enhanced behavior from a technological standpoint. 
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  3. Abstract

    Hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) are stimulated by coupling infrared (IR) photons with the polar lattice vibrations. Such HPhPs offer low‐loss, highly confined light propagation at subwavelength scales with out‐of‐plane or in‐plane hyperbolic wavefronts. For HPhPs, while a hyperbolic dispersion implies multiple propagating modes with a distribution of wavevectors at a given frequency, so far it has been challenging to experimentally launch and probe the higher‐order modes that offer stronger wavelength compression, especially for in‐plane HPhPs. In this work, the experimental observation of higher‐order in‐plane HPhP modes stimulated on a 3C‐SiC nanowire (NW)/α‐MoO3heterostructure is reported where leveraging both the low‐dimensionality and low‐loss nature of the polar NWs, higher‐order HPhPs modes within 2D α‐MoO3crystal are launched by the 1D 3C‐SiC NW. The launching mechanism is further studied and the requirements for efficiently launching of such higher‐order modes are determined. In addition, by altering the geometric orientation between the 3C‐SiC NW and α‐MoO3crystal, the manipulation of higher‐order HPhP dispersions as a method of tuning is demonstrated. This work illustrates an extremely anisotropic low dimensional heterostructure platform to confine and configure electromagnetic waves at the deep‐subwavelength scales for a range of IR applications including sensing, nano‐imaging, and on‐chip photonics.

     
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    Understanding transport mechanisms of electrons and phonons, two major energy carriers in solids, are crucial for various engineering applications. It is widely believed that more free electrons in a material should correspond to a higher thermal conductivity; however, free electrons also scatter phonons to lower the lattice thermal conductivity. The net contribution of free electrons has been rarely studied because the effects of electron–phonon (e–ph) interactions on lattice thermal conductivity have not been well investigated. Here an experimental study of e–ph scattering in quasi-one-dimensional NbSe 3 nanowires is reported, taking advantage of the spontaneous free carrier concentration change during charge density wave (CDW) phase transition. Contrary to the common wisdom that more free electrons would lead to a higher thermal conductivity, results show that during the depinning process of the condensed electrons, while the released electrons enhance the electronic thermal conductivity, the overall thermal conductivity decreases due to the escalated e–ph scattering. This study discloses how competing effects of free electrons result in unexpected trends and provides solid experimental data to dissect the contribution of e–ph scattering on lattice thermal conductivity. Lastly, an active thermal switch design is demonstrated based on tuning electron concentration through electric field. 
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