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  1. Abstract

    We present cosmological analysis of 12 nearby (z< 0.06) Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) observed with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope. To achieve precise photometry, we present a new image-differencing technique that is implemented for the first time on the ROTSE SN photometry pipeline. With this method, we find up to a 20% increase in the detection efficiency and significant reduction in residual rms scatter of the SN lightcurves when compared to the previous pipeline performance. We use the published optical spectra and broadband photometry of well-studied SNe IIP to establish temporal models for ejecta velocity and photospheric temperature evolution for our SNe IIP population. This study yields measurements that are competitive with other methods even when the data are limited to a single epoch during the photospheric phase of SNe IIP. Using the fully reduced ROTSE photometry and optical spectra, we apply these models to the respective photometric epochs for each SN in the ROTSE IIP sample. This facilitates the use of the Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM) to obtain distance estimates to their respective host galaxies. We then perform cosmological parameter fitting using these EPM distances, from which we measure the Hubble constant to be72.94.3+5.7kms1Mpc1, which is consistent with the standard ΛCDM model values derived using other independent techniques.

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  2. Sopory, SK (Ed.)
    As sessile organisms, plants are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental stresses that have detrimental effects on their growth and development, leading to major crop yield losses worldwide. To cope with adverse conditions plants have developed several adaptive mechanisms. A thorough understanding these mechanisms is critical to generate plants for the future. The heterotrimeric G-protein complex, composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, participates in regulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways and have multifaceted roles in regulating stress responses of plants. The complex has two functional entities, the GTP-bound Gα subunit and the Gβγ dimer, both of which by interacting with additional proteins can activate various signaling networks. The involvement of G-proteins has been shown in plants’ response to drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, heavy metal, ozone, and UV-B radiation. Due to their versatility and the number of processes modulated by them, G-proteins have emerged as key targets for generating stress tolerant crops. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the roles of G proteins in abiotic stress tolerance, with examples from model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where these processes are most widely studied and from additional agriculturally relevant crops, where their potential is realized for human usage. 
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  3. Abstract Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of high-energy radiation arising from energetic cosmic explosions. Bursts of long (greater than two seconds) duration are produced by the core-collapse of massive stars 1 , and those of short (less than two seconds) duration by the merger of compact objects, such as two neutron stars 2 . A third class of events with hybrid high-energy properties was identified 3 , but never conclusively linked to a stellar progenitor. The lack of bright supernovae rules out typical core-collapse explosions 4–6 , but their distance scales prevent sensitive searches for direct signatures of a progenitor system. Only tentative evidence for a kilonova has been presented 7,8 . Here we report observations of the exceptionally bright GRB 211211A, which classify it as a hybrid event and constrain its distance scale to only 346 megaparsecs. Our measurements indicate that its lower-energy (from ultraviolet to near-infrared) counterpart is powered by a luminous (approximately 10 42  erg per second) kilonova possibly formed in the ejecta of a compact object merger. 
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  4. ABSTRACT We report on detailed multiwavelength observations and analysis of the very bright and long GRB 210619B, detected by the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor installed on the International Space Station and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board the Fermi mission. Our main goal is to understand the radiation mechanisms and jet composition of GRB 210619B. With a measured redshift of z = 1.937, we find that GRB 210619B falls within the 10 most luminous bursts observed by Fermi so far. The energy-resolved prompt emission light curve of GRB 210619B exhibits an extremely bright hard emission pulse followed by softer/longer emission pulses. The low-energy photon index (αpt) values obtained using the time-resolved spectral analysis of the burst suggest a transition between the thermal (during harder pulse) to non-thermal (during softer pulse) outflow. We examine the correlation between spectral parameters and find that both peak energy and αpt exhibit the flux tracking pattern. The late time broad-band photometric data set can be explained within the framework of the external forward shock model with νm < νc < νx (where νm, νc, and νx are the synchrotron peak, cooling-break, and X-ray frequencies, respectively) spectral regime supporting a rarely observed hard electron energy index (p < 2). We find moderate values of host extinction of E(B − V) = 0.14 ± 0.01 mag for the small magellanic cloud extinction law. In addition, we also report late-time optical observations with the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias placing deep upper limits for the host galaxy (z = 1.937), favouring a faint, dwarf host for the burst. 
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    Cross-correlation between weak lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and weak lensing of galaxies offers a way to place robust constraints on cosmological and astrophysical parameters with reduced sensitivity to certain systematic effects affecting individual surveys. We measure the angular cross-power spectrum between the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) DR4 CMB lensing and the galaxy weak lensing measured by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Y3 data. Our baseline analysis uses the CMB convergence map derived from ACT-DR4 and Planck data, where most of the contamination due to the thermal Sunyaev Zel’dovich effect is removed, thus avoiding important systematics in the cross-correlation. In our modelling, we consider the nuisance parameters of the photometric uncertainty, multiplicative shear bias and intrinsic alignment of galaxies. The resulting cross-power spectrum has a signal-to-noise ratio = 7.1 and passes a set of null tests. We use it to infer the amplitude of the fluctuations in the matter distribution (S8 ≡ σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.5 = 0.782 ± 0.059) with informative but well-motivated priors on the nuisance parameters. We also investigate the validity of these priors by significantly relaxing them and checking the consistency of the resulting posteriors, finding them consistent, albeit only with relatively weak constraints. This cross-correlation measurement will improve significantly with the new ACT-DR6 lensing map and form a key component of the joint 6×2pt analysis between DES and ACT.

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    Widefield surveys probe clustered scalar fields – such as galaxy counts, lensing potential, etc. – which are sensitive to different cosmological and astrophysical processes. Constraining such processes depends on the statistics that summarize the field. We explore the cumulative distribution function (CDF) as a summary of the galaxy lensing convergence field. Using a suite of N-body light-cone simulations, we show the CDFs’ constraining power is modestly better than the second and third moments, as CDFs approximately capture information from all moments. We study the practical aspects of applying CDFs to data, using the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y3) data as an example, and compute the impact of different systematics on the CDFs. The contributions from the point spread function and reduced shear approximation are $\lesssim 1~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the total signal. Source clustering effects and baryon imprints contribute 1–10 per cent. Enforcing scale cuts to limit systematics-driven biases in parameter constraints degrade these constraints a noticeable amount, and this degradation is similar for the CDFs and the moments. We detect correlations between the observed convergence field and the shape noise field at 13σ. The non-Gaussian correlations in the noise field must be modelled accurately to use the CDFs, or other statistics sensitive to all moments, as a rigorous cosmology tool.

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    We search for signatures of cosmological shocks in gas pressure profiles of galaxy clusters using the cluster catalogues from three surveys: the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 3, the South Pole Telescope (SPT) SZ survey, and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) data releases 4, 5, and 6, and using thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) maps from SPT and ACT. The combined cluster sample contains around 105 clusters with mass and redshift ranges $10^{13.7} \lt M_{\rm 200m}/\, {\rm M}_\odot \lt 10^{15.5}$ and 0.1 < z < 2, and the total sky coverage of the maps is $\approx 15\, 000 \deg ^2$. We find a clear pressure deficit at R/R200m ≈ 1.1 in SZ profiles around both ACT and SPT clusters, estimated at 6σ significance, which is qualitatively consistent with a shock-induced thermal non-equilibrium between electrons and ions. The feature is not as clearly determined in profiles around DES clusters. We verify that measurements using SPT or ACT maps are consistent across all scales, including in the deficit feature. The SZ profiles of optically selected and SZ-selected clusters are also consistent for higher mass clusters. Those of less massive, optically selected clusters are suppressed on small scales by factors of 2–5 compared to predictions, and we discuss possible interpretations of this behaviour. An oriented stacking of clusters – where the orientation is inferred from the SZ image, the brightest cluster galaxy, or the surrounding large-scale structure measured using galaxy catalogues – shows the normalization of the one-halo and two-halo terms vary with orientation. Finally, the location of the pressure deficit feature is statistically consistent with existing estimates of the splashback radius.

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    The fiducial cosmological analyses of imaging surveys like DES typically probe the Universe at redshifts z < 1. We present the selection and characterization of high-redshift galaxy samples using DES Year 3 data, and the analysis of their galaxy clustering measurements. In particular, we use galaxies that are fainter than those used in the previous DES Year 3 analyses and a Bayesian redshift scheme to define three tomographic bins with mean redshifts around z ∼ 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5, which extend the redshift coverage of the fiducial DES Year 3 analysis. These samples contain a total of about 9 million galaxies, and their galaxy density is more than 2 times higher than those in the DES Year 3 fiducial case. We characterize the redshift uncertainties of the samples, including the usage of various spectroscopic and high-quality redshift samples, and we develop a machine-learning method to correct for correlations between galaxy density and survey observing conditions. The analysis of galaxy clustering measurements, with a total signal to noise S/N ∼ 70 after scale cuts, yields robust cosmological constraints on a combination of the fraction of matter in the Universe Ωm and the Hubble parameter h, $\Omega _m h = 0.195^{+0.023}_{-0.018}$, and 2–3  per cent measurements of the amplitude of the galaxy clustering signals, probing galaxy bias and the amplitude of matter fluctuations, bσ8. A companion paper (in preparation) will present the cross-correlations of these high-z samples with cosmic microwave background lensing from Planck and South Pole Telescope, and the cosmological analysis of those measurements in combination with the galaxy clustering presented in this work.

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