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  1. We report on a total of 1005 samples analyzed for major and trace element compositions from marine sediments drilled along the Hikurangi subduction zone and within the incoming Pacific plate. The samples are from International Ocean Discovery Program Expeditions 375 and 372; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329; Ocean Drilling Program Leg 181; and Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 90. All 1005 samples, resulting in a total number of ~20,200 individual measurements, were analyzed for major element compositions with the electron microprobe. A subset of 419 samples, resulting in a total number of ~1820 individual glass shard analyses, were analyzed for trace element compositions using the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. In total, ~640 samples were identified as primary ash layers based on their homogeneous geochemistry, visual appearance in the core pictures, and high amount of volcanic glass. Based on the biostratigraphy presented in the cruise reports and subsequent work, we can distinguish between Quaternary- and Neogene-derived tephras. The tephra layers of Quaternary age are mostly of rhyolitic composition with occasional andesitic, dacitic, and trachytic glass shards. The Neogene tephras are mostly of basaltic andesite, andesitic, and rhyolitic composition, with a few basaltic and trachytic tephras. Tephras of both age groups follow the calc-alkaline series trend with a tendency to shift into the high-K calc-alkaline series for tephras with >70 wt% SiO2. 
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  2. We report on a total of 310 samples from marine sediments drilled in the Indian Ocean that were analyzed for glass shard compositions. Samples are mainly from International Ocean Discovery Program Expeditions 353 and 362 but are complemented by samples from Expedition 354; Ocean Drilling Program Legs 183, 121, 120, 119, 116, and 115; and Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 22. We performed 4327 successful single glass shard analyses with the electron microprobe for major element compositions and conducted 937 successful single analyses with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for trace element compositions on individual glass shards previously measured with the electron microprobe. In total, we were able to measure glass compositions for 254 samples. Of all the samples, 235 can be classified as tephra layers containing pyroclasts as the predominant component in their clast inventory between the 63 and 125 ┬Ám grain size fraction, often exceeding 90 vol%. The compositions of the Indian Ocean marine tephras range from basalt to rhyolite and from basaltic trachyandesite to trachyte and fall into the calc-alkaline, K-rich calc-alkaline, and shoshonitic magmatic series. 
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