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  1. Previous studies have documented student–faculty interaction in STEM, but fewer studies have specifically studied negative forms of interaction such as discrimination from faculty. Using a sample of 562 STEM undergraduates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, we use hierarchical generalized linear modeling to investigate various types of student–faculty interaction in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and in particular, the link between discrimination from faculty and retention in STEM. While Black students interacted more frequently with faculty, they were also most likely to report experiencing racial/ethnic discrimination. Overall, female, Black, and Latinx students were more likely to leave STEM by the fourth year of college than male, White, and Asian American peers. Feeling that professors made a student feel uncomfortable due to race/ethnicity was negatively linked with STEM retention. None of the traditional forms of student–faculty interaction (i.e., non-discriminatory) predicted retention. Variation in patterns by race, gender, and income are discussed, as well as implications for research, policy, and practice. 
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  2. While student-faculty interaction is linked to numerous benefits for students, a central puzzle is why not all groups appear to benefit equally from such interaction. Using a sample of 778 STEM undergraduates from the National Longitudinal Study of Freshmen, we use structural equation modeling to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between key student background characteristics and college experience variables, student-faculty interaction, discrimination from faculty, and college GPA among STEM undergraduate students. Results suggest that students who interacted more frequently with faculty also were more frequently exposed to experiencing discrimination from faculty because of race/ethnicity, which hence negatively affected college GPA. In particular, Black STEM students with higher interaction with faculty were more likely to experience discrimination from professors because of race/ethnicity, and student-faculty interaction only had a significant positive effect on college GPA for White students. 
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